Cases reported "Inflammation"

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1/6. Report of a fatal case of dengue infection with hepatitis: demonstration of dengue antigens in hepatocytes and liver apoptosis.

    A fatal case of dengue (DEN) infection associated with a spleen rupture and with hepatitis is reported here. Microscopic studies showed numerous areas of spleen rupture with hematomas and revealed necrotic foci in liver samples obtained at autopsy. Although hepatitis was reported in several cases of DEN fever, the mechanism of liver injury remains poorly understood. In this case, immunohistochemistry showed that DEN viral antigens were mostly detected in hepatocytes surrounding the necrotic foci. By in situ detection of dna fragmentation, apoptotic hepatocytes were found to be colocated with DEN virus-infected hepatocytes. These findings suggest that hepatocytes are the major sites of DEN virus replication in the liver and that DEN virus induces apoptosis of hepatocytes in vivo.
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keywords = apoptosis
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2/6. Inflammatory vitiligo in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease is a rare disease characterized by uveitis, meningitis, dysacusis, alopecia, poliosis, and vitiligo. We describe a 48-year-old patient with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease associated with thin inflammatory raised erythema and plaque-type inflammatory erythema superimposed on vitiligo. Interestingly, inflammatory raised erythema was separated from the perfect vitiligo, and the incomplete vitiligo lay between them initially. Thereafter, incomplete vitiligo became completely depigmented with diminution of inflammatory raised erythema. This is the second case of vitiligo with inflammatory raised borders associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Our results of immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies suggested the involvement of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the development of skin lesions.
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keywords = apoptosis
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3/6. Chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome is caused by mutations in CIAS1, a gene highly expressed in polymorphonuclear cells and chondrocytes.

    Chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular (CINCA) syndrome is a severe chronic inflammatory disease of early onset, characterized by cutaneous symptoms, central-nervous-system involvement, and arthropathy. In the present study, we report, in seven unrelated patients with CINCA syndrome, distinct missense mutations within the nucleotide-binding site of CIAS1, a gene encoding cryopyrin and previously shown to cause Muckle-Wells syndrome and familial cold urticaria. Because of the severe cartilage overgrowth observed in some patients with CINCA syndrome and the implications of polymorphonuclear cell infiltration in the cutaneous and neurological manifestations of this syndrome, the tissue-specific expression of CIAS1 was evaluated. A high level of expression of CIAS1 was found to be restricted to polymorphonuclear cells and chondrocytes. These findings demonstrate that CIAS1 missense mutations can result in distinct phenotypes with only a few overlapping symptoms and suggest that this gene may function as a potential inducer of apoptosis.
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keywords = apoptosis
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4/6. Late recurrence of inflammatory first-stage lesions in incontinentia pigmenti: an unusual phenomenon and a fascinating pathologic mechanism.

    BACKGROUND: incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked genodermatosis that is manifested by neonatal inflammatory vesicles localized along the lines of Blaschko. These lesions usually clear spontaneously within a few months, leaving hyperpigmentation. Ophthalmologic and neurologic symptoms can be associated with IP. Late recurrences of the first-stage inflammatory lesions after the initial rash are uncommon and have been reported infrequently. The mechanism involved in this phenomenon is unclear. However, the recent identification of NEMO/IKKgamma as the gene responsible for IP sheds new light on its pathophysiologic origins. OBSERVATIONS: We report 5 cases of children who experienced episodes of late reactivation of IP. In all cases, the recurrences occurred on the previously hyperpigmented streaks several months or years after resolution of the initial eruptions. In most cases, the recurrences were preceded by an infectious episode. CONCLUSIONS: These IP recurrences suggest that mutated cells can persist a long time in the epidermis. We theorize that infections trigger the reactivations. The NEMO/IKKgamma gene encodes a protein essential in nuclear factor kappaB activation, which is required for resistance to tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. We discuss the role of a proinflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor alpha as a triggering factor for the reactivation.
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keywords = apoptosis
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5/6. Toxic rise of clozapine plasma concentrations in relation to inflammation.

    Recently a small number of patients were observed in two psychiatric hospitals in the netherlands with clozapine intoxications that complicate or mimic infections. These patients were on chronic medication and normally had stable clozapine blood plasma levels. This article presents four of these cases. medline was searched for reports of similar cases. A hypothesis was formulated and tested by literature study. Immune modulatory and toxic effects of clozapine protein reactive metabolites or haptens, may play a role in the development of inflammation. clozapine has a direct influence on different cytokines resembling an inflammatory reaction. infection or inflammation could induce bioactivation of clozapine into its nitrenium ion that can exert a toxic reaction that induces apoptosis and gives rise to elevated cytokine levels. clozapine can function as a hapten and induce an IgG, IgM or IgE mediated hypersensitivity reaction. The cytokines released during infection or inflammation downregulate the clozapine metabolism in the P450 system through CYP 1A2. clozapine plasma levels should be monitored closely if an inflammatory or infectious process is suspected.
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keywords = apoptosis
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6/6. The puzzle of sepsis: fitting the pieces of the inflammatory response with treatment.

    sepsis is a complex syndrome characterized by simultaneous activation of inflammation and coagulation in response to microbial insult. These events manifest as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)/sepsis symptoms through release of proinflammatory cytokines, procoagulants, and adhesion molecules from immune cells and/or damaged endothelium.Conventional treatments have focused on source control, antimicrobials, vasopressors, and fluid resuscitation; however, a new treatment paradigm exists: that of treating the host response to infection with adjunct therapies including early goal directed therapy, drotrecogin alfa (activated), and immunonutrition. The multimechanistic drotrecogin alfa (activated) has been shown to reduce mortality in the severely septic patient when combined with traditional treatment. Therapies targeting improved oxygen and blood flow and reduction of apoptosis and free radicals are under investigation. Early sepsis diagnosis through detection of pro calcitonin, C reactive protein, sublingual CO2, and genetic factors may be beneficial. Ultimately, intervention timing may be the most important factor in reducing severe sepsis mortality.
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keywords = apoptosis
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