Cases reported "Influenza, Human"

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11/25. A case of adult influenza a virus-associated encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    A 27-year-old man presented with fever, convulsive seizure, and sudden impairment of consciousness. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were found in the bilateral thalami, including the brain stem and white matter. The possibility of a previous influenza a virus infection was considered, and cerebrospinal fluid cells and interleukin-6 were elevated. The MRI findings closely resembled those found in cases of childhood acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). The present case suggests that adult influenza a virus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy or ANE can occur during winter influenza epidemics.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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12/25. encephalitis associated with influenza b virus infection in 2 children and a review of the literature.

    Two children with influenza B-associated encephalitis (IBAE) presented to our hospital during the winter of 2000-2001, both of whom had cases notable for mutism in association with encephalitis. A review of the literature identified 13 additional reports consistent with IBAE that contained sufficient data for analysis. Eleven of 15 reported cases occurred in children aged speech abnormalities were observed in 4 patients and consisted of mutism in 3. Although the majority of patients recovered fully, 3 were left with neurologic sequelae, and 1 died. These cases reveal the spectrum of IBAE and its potential for long-term sequelae. Clinicians caring for children should remain vigilant for this rare complication of influenza b virus infection.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = encephalitis
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13/25. amantadine penetration into cerebrospinal fluid of a child with influenza A encephalitis.

    The use of amantadine has been advocated as treatment for influenza A encephalitis despite limited information regarding cerebrospinal fluid concentrations and the pathogenesis of encephalitis associated with influenza virus infections. We report a 2-year-old child with influenza A encephalitis treated with amantadine who achieved a potentially therapeutic concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. Despite this the child developed significant neurologic impairment.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = encephalitis
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14/25. Influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum: a case report and literature review.

    We report the cases of two patients with influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAEE) who presented with mild CNS manifestations and complete recovery within a few days. Initial MR imaging at days 4 and 5 revealed a lesion in the central portion of the splenium of the corpus callosum with a reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, which completely resolved on follow-up studies at day 10. We postulate two possible mechanisms for decreased ADC; namely, intramyelinic edema and an inflammatory infiltrate.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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15/25. Fatal avian influenza A (H5N1) in a child presenting with diarrhea followed by coma.

    In southern vietnam, a four-year-old boy presented with severe diarrhea, followed by seizures, coma, and death. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 1 white cell per cubic millimeter, normal glucose levels, and increased levels of protein (0.81 g per liter). The diagnosis of avian influenza A (H5N1) was established by isolation of the virus from cerebrospinal fluid, fecal, throat, and serum specimens. The patient's nine-year-old sister had died from a similar syndrome two weeks earlier. In both siblings, the clinical diagnosis was acute encephalitis. Neither patient had respiratory symptoms at presentation. These cases suggest that the spectrum of influenza H5N1 is wider than previously thought.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = encephalitis
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16/25. Influenza retinitis: association with influenza encephalitis.

    PURPOSE: To report an unusual case of retinitis caused by influenza virus. CASE: A 30-year-old male claimed partial color blindness after recovery from influenza encephalitis. visual acuity was 0.3 in the right eye and 0.03 in the left. An ophthalmoscopic fundus examination looked normal, but fluorescein angiography revealed granular hyperfluorescence with multiple dark circular lesions at the posterior pole of both eyes. Serological testing revealed an influenza a virus infection. With corticosteroid pulse therapy (3 days) followed by oral methyl prednisolone for 1 month, visual acuity gradually recovered. Over the following 2-year period, visual acuity has recovered to 1.2 in both eyes, but color sensation still remains impaired. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza encephalitis can cause visual loss due to retinitis at the posterior pole.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = encephalitis
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17/25. MRI and SPECT in influenzal encephalitis.

    Repeated magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed in a 22-month-old boy with influenzal encephalitis. T2-weighted magnetic resonance images disclosed multifocal hyperintense areas in the cortex and subcortical white matter of the left frontal, temporal, parietal, and right frontal lobes. 123I single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain images demonstrated decreased uptake in the same regions. SPECT revealed larger areas of decreased uptake as compared with magnetic resonance imaging. One year after the onset of encephalitis, these brain lesions continue to be observed, although the patient has no apparent neurologic sequelae.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = encephalitis
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18/25. Influenza a-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy.

    Acute inflammatory processes of the brain tissue and meninges caused by viruses are relatively common and may be caused by a number of different viral agents. The specific etiological agent is not identified in many instances. Most cases completely recover. The prognosis depends upon the severity of the clinical illness, the specific etiology, and the age of the child. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is an important clinical type of encephalitis. In recent years, many cases of ANE caused by influenza a virus infection have been reported from different Eastern and European countries. In this paper we describe a young child with influenza A-associated ANE.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = encephalitis
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19/25. Imaging in influenza A encephalitis.

    Two cases of influenza A encephalitis seen during an outbreak of influenza types A/england/427/88 (H3N2) and A/taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) in December 1989 are described. In both children the encephalitis developed within three days of the respiratory symptoms and both became comatose within 48 hours. Virological studies showed that the patients had had a recent influenza A infection. Symmetrical localised hypodense lesions within the thalami and pons were demonstrated in both cases on computed tomography of the brain and striking findings in the pons in one case on magnetic resonance imaging. Influenza A encephalitis is not easy to recognise clinically and serological confirmation can only be made after 10 days. Imaging may provide evidence in the acute stage to support a diagnosis of influenza encephalitis during influenza outbreaks.
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ranking = 1.6
keywords = encephalitis
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20/25. Pulmonary infection in human immunodeficiency disease: viral pulmonary infections.

    Viral pneumonitides are among the known pulmonary complications of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis is the most frequently recognized viral infection involving the lung. Although CMV may occasionally be the sole pathogen found to be responsible for severe pneumonitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in most cases, its role in causing pulmonary disease is less clear, primarily because of the propensity to infect with a variety of other copathogens. CMV pneumonitis has been difficult to diagnose during life, although techniques utilizing in situ dna hybridization or monoclonal antibodies for detection of the virus may improve the diagnostic yield of less invasive procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage. Pneumonitis due to herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster, and respiratory syncytial virus have occasionally been reported in AIDS patients, and are of practical importance because of the availability of effective treatment. The role of influenza and adenoviruses in causing hiv-related pulmonary complications is unknown, but could be of importance during outbreaks of these infections. Finally, data from several studies now suggest that Epstein-Barr virus or hiv itself or both have a role in the pneumonitis. Further study in this area could provide information leading to more effective management of this common complication of childhood AIDS.
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ranking = 8.8080697565495E-5
keywords = herpes
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