Cases reported "Influenza, Human"

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1/266. Hemiballismus associated with Influenza A infection.

    A case of 2-year and 3-month-old boy developing right hemiballismus and transient selective unilateral involvement in the left thalamus on MRI during Influenza A infection is reported. Hemiballismus is an extremely rare neurological complication and, to our knowledge, this is the first case showing hemiballismus during Influenza A infection. ( info)

2/266. A case of sinus arrest and vagal overactivity during REM sleep.

    A young man presented with tachycardia and faintness after an episode of influenza. He underwent 24-h heart rate recordings, each of which documented episodes of sinus arrest lasting up to 7.2 seconds. All episodes occurred in the second half of the night and were always accompanied by severe bradycardia. Cardiac function tests failed to disclose anything abnormal. Two polysomnographic recordings demonstrated that the sinus arrests occurred during REM sleep. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability showed that during the second half of the night there was an abnormal prevalence of vagal activity, particularly during REM sleep stages, presumably responsible for the bradycardia and fall in blood pressure. We speculate that the episodes of sinus arrest are linked to a central mechanism that triggers the autonomic imbalance during REM sleep. ( info)

3/266. Human infection with influenza H9N2.

    We report the clinical features of two cases of human infection with influenza A virus subtype H9N2 in hong kong, and show that serum samples from blood donors in hong kong had neutralising antibody suggestive of prior infection with influenza H9N2. ( info)

4/266. Influenza A encephalitis with movement disorder.

    Influenza A is an uncommon but well-recognized cause of viral encephalitis in childhood, occurring most commonly during community influenza outbreaks. The authors report four cases of influenza A encephalitis that occurred during an Australian epidemic in 1997-1998. Choreoathetosis during the acute phase of infection or basal ganglia involvement on neuroimaging was observed in three of the four patients. These findings in pediatric encephalitis are suggestive of influenza A infection and may guide investigation and early diagnosis. ( info)

5/266. rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure associated with influenza virus type A.

    Two patients with rhabdomyolysis-induced acute renal failure due to influenza a virus infection are presented. Both had influenza symptoms, with high fever and severe muscular pain leading to walking problems. In addition, they were dehydrated due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Both had evidence of an ongoing influenza infection according to serological tests. Muscle injury due to the viral infection gave rise to rhabdomyolysis with efflux of myoglobin from the muscles, causing renal failure. In conclusion, influenza a virus infection can cause rhabdomyolysis accompanied by reversible acute renal failure. ( info)

6/266. Successful treatment of post-influenza pseudomembranous necrotising bronchial aspergillosis with liposomal amphotericin, inhaled amphotericin b, gamma interferon and GM-CSF.

    A case of aspergillus tracheobronchitis following influenza A infection in an immunocompetent 35 year old woman is described that required prolonged mechanical ventilation for airways obstruction. Treatment included liposomal amphotericin, inhaled amphotericin, gamma interferon and GM-CSF. Liposomal amphotericin therapy was associated with reversible hepatosplenomegaly. Inhaled corticosteroids with continued antifungal therapy were used for the management of severe recurrent airway obstruction. After a prolonged course of treatment she survived with fixed airways obstruction unresponsive to corticosteroids. ( info)

7/266. Benign acute childhood myositis: laboratory and clinical features.

    BACKGROUND: Benign acute myositis of childhood is a disorder of midchildhood, typically affecting boys. Symptoms include calf pain and difficulty walking after a viral illness. There is an epidemiologic association with influenza. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and laboratory features of benign acute myositis. RESULTS: Thirty-eight children (32 boys, 6 girls) were seen with 41 episodes of myositis between 1978 and 1997. Two were siblings and three had recurrent episodes. Mean age at onset of symptoms was 8.1 years. Children remained ambulant during 33 of 41 episodes. Two characteristic gaits were noted: toe-walking in 13, with a wide-based stiff-legged gait in another 7. Muscle tenderness was isolated to the gastrocnemius-soleus muscles in 82% of episodes. Recovery occurred within 1 week. creatine kinase levels were elevated during all episodes. Viral studies were positive in 10 of 24 episodes, 5 because of influenza B. CONCLUSION: Benign acute myositis is a syndrome of midchildhood that can be differentiated from more serious causes of walking difficulty by the presence of calf tenderness, normal power, intact tendon reflexes, and elevated creatine kinase. The gait patterns noted may minimize power generation of the calf muscles by splinting the ankles. Onset in childhood may reflect an age-related response to viral infection, and occurrence primarily in boys may reflect a genetic predisposition or an as-yet unknown metabolic defect. ( info)

8/266. Hepatic decompensation in patients with cirrhosis during infection with influenza A.

    BACKGROUND: patients with chronic liver disease can develop hepatic decompensation during systemic infections. Although gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are well recognized as causes of decompensation, the effect of influenza virus infection on patients with chronic liver disease is poorly documented. methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with positive viral cultures who were seen at a liver transplantation clinic in a tertiary care referral center during the 1997-1998 influenza A (H3N2) epidemic in San Diego, Calif. RESULTS: Three patients with end-stage liver disease (1 with Wilson disease and 2 with alcoholic liver disease) developed hepatic decompensation and required hospitalization during infection with influenza A. Two patients had biochemical and clinical evidence of hepatic decompensation, including ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and peripheral edema, and the third had acute hepatocellular damage, with elevated levels of aminotransferases. Viral hepatitis serologic test results, acetaminophen levels, drug and alcohol screening findings, and bacterial and fungal cultures were negative in all 3 patients. Hepatic decompensation resolved without the need for transplantation in the 2 patients with liver failure, and all patients recovered to their baseline liver function levels within 1 month of onset of acute illness. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza A infection can cause hepatic decompensation and hospitalization in patients having cirrhosis or who are awaiting liver transplantation. Effective prevention with vaccination and early recognition and treatment of influenza are strongly recommended in these individuals. ( info)

9/266. Influenza pneumonia in a paediatric lung transplant recipient.

    Although a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population, influenza infections are uncommon in lung transplant recipients and, to date, have only been associated with transient declines in pulmonary function and a relatively benign clinical course. This paper describes severe influenza pneumonia in a 13-year-old paediatric lung transplant recipient (5 months after double lung transplantation). Influenza pneumonia was diagnosed by direct fluorescent antibody testing and viral culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The patient required mechanical ventilation for 2 days due to respiratory failure and fatigue. Since his recovery from this pneumonia, he has developed obliterative bronchiolitis and currently awaits re-transplantation. ( info)

10/266. Two cases of acute myositis associated with influenza a virus infection in the elderly.

    During the influenza epidemic of 1998-1999, we observed two elderly patients with influenza-like symptoms who had evidence of acute myositis with elevated serum enzymes. Influenza A infection was confirmed serologically in either case. The present cases suggest that it is important to distinguish influenzal myositis from other forms of myopathy in the elderly patients. ( info)
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