Cases reported "Insulin Resistance"

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1/33. Ovarian responses to hCG stimulation: insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia vs. insulin deficiency.

    polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by signs and symptoms of hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. We present the clinical and hormonal features in an adolescent girl who had distinct intervals of insulin deficiency and insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia. This case report confirms that insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia exacerbates ovarian hyperandrogenism.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovary syndrome, ovary
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2/33. association of metformin and pregnancy in the polycystic ovary syndrome. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: infertility is a common manifestation of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Hyperinsulinemia leads to increased ovarian androgen production, resulting in follicular atresia and anovulation. metformin, a medication that improves insulin sensitivity and decreases serum insulin levels, restores menstrual cyclicity and ovulatory function and may improve fertility rates in women with PCOS. We present three consecutive cases from our clinic that support this premise. CASES: Three patients were seen in the reproductive endocrinology clinic with documented PCOS, long-standing infertility and clinically diagnosed insulin resistance. The first patient had hyperandrogenic, insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans syndrome and had been resistant to multiple courses of clomiphene citrate; the second exhibited hypertension, hyperlipidemia and glucose intolerance along with anovulation; and the third presented with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and a desire to conceive. Each patient received metformin, which led to restoration of menstrual cyclicity and conception in all three cases. CONCLUSION: These three patients reflect the heterogeneous nature of PCOS, and treating their underlying insulin resistance with metformin resulted in pregnancy. These findings suggest that metformin may be a useful adjunct for treatment of infertility in patients with PCOS.
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ranking = 34.024024593052
keywords = polycystic ovary syndrome, polycystic ovary, ovary syndrome, polycystic, ovary
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3/33. Two hyperandrogenic adolescent girls with congenital portosystemic shunt.

    We describe two adolescent girls with a congenital portosystemic shunt who exhibited hyperandrogenism in addition to insulin resistant hyperinsulinaemia. Case 1 was referred to our clinic to undergo a routine clinical work-up prior to tonsillectomy at 14 years of age. Mild liver dysfunction was identified and hypogenesis of the portal vein with a congenital portosystemic shunt diagnosed. Primary amenorrhoea and virilization were evident and an endocrinological evaluation revealed hyperandrogenism and insulin resistant hyperinsulinaemia. Case 2 was referred at 15 years of age because of cardiomegaly. Mild liver dysfunction and hyperbilirubinaemia led to a diagnosis of agenesis of the portal vein with a congenital portosystemic shunt. Virilization was evident and an endocrinological evaluation revealed hyperandrogenism and insulin resistant hyperinsulinaemia. The haemodynamics of these patients were similar to those of secondary portosystemic shunt due to liver cirrhosis, which is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and/or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, hyperandrogenism is associated with certain insulin-resistant conditions with hyperinsulinaemia, including the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO). Hyperinsulinaemia is believed to cause hyperandrogenism in patients with PCO by stimulating androgen production in both the ovary and adrenal gland. Therefore, in congenital portosystemic shunts, hyperinsulinaemia is also thought to cause hyperandrogenism due to the same mechanism. CONCLUSION: A certain percentage of female patients with hyperandrogenism, likely including those with polycystic ovary syndrome may also have congenital portosystemic shunts. Our results indicate that serum levels of total bile acids and ammonia are prognostic indicators of this hepatic vascular anomaly.
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ranking = 13.61156569504
keywords = polycystic ovary syndrome, polycystic ovary, ovary syndrome, polycystic, ovary
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4/33. Extreme insulin resistance syndrome.

    Congenital extreme insulin resistance syndrome has rarely been reported in taiwan. In 1982, a girl of a consanguineous marriage was noted to have increased body hair, an enlarged clitoris, and acanthosis nigricans at birth. Two months later, she received an operation for bilateral polycystic evaries. She was found to have diabetes at 8 years old and was treated with insulin. In March 1999, she was referred to our clinic with growth retardation and poor glycemic control. She had a characteristic face with a saddle nose, broad mouth, large low-set ears, absence of subcutaneous fat, and deformed nails. Although a very high dose of insulin (> 10 IU/kg/day) was used, her glycemic control was very poor (HbA1c 13.8%). Pediatricians should remain alert for the manifestations of extreme insulin resistance.
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ranking = 0.023796743736414
keywords = polycystic
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5/33. Inhibition of growth hormone excess reduces insulin resistance and ovarian dysfunction in a lean case of polycystic ovary syndrome with a growth-hormone-producing pituitary adenoma.

    A 23-year-old female with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and a growth-hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenoma is described. A reduction in the elevated GH levels to normal levels following the administration of dopaminergic agents decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and ovarian dysfunction. Menstrual cycles were therefore restored and the number of ovarian cysts reduced, suggesting that insulin and/or IGF-1, stimulators of theca cell proliferation, may be pathogenetic factors in PCOS.
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ranking = 34.024024593052
keywords = polycystic ovary syndrome, polycystic ovary, ovary syndrome, polycystic, ovary
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6/33. insulin resistance Type A and short 5th metacarpals.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: insulin resistance is associated with a number genetic syndromes and a variety of defects of insulin action. methods: We describe three members of an extended family spanning two generations with insulin resistance Type A and short 5th metacarpals. The proband had secondary amenorrhoea, male pattern hair distribution, acne, hirsutism, deep voice, acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovaries, diabetes, features of acromegaly, raised creatine kinase and triglyceride levels and short 5th metacarpals. Her growth hormone, adrenal steroid and testosterone levels were normal. The proband's daughter had severe acne, hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovaries, raised triglyceride, glucose and testosterone level short metacarpals and normal insulin receptor gene. The proband's son had a muscular build, raised creatine kinase, hypertriglyceridaemia and short 5th metacarpals. His fasting insulin levels were normal but pro-insulin was raised. RESULT/CONCLUSION: There are many familial and genetic syndromes associated with insulin resistance. This family was diagnosed as having insulin resistance Type A. This family does not conform entirely to any of the previously described syndromes and a number of family members have the phenotype of short 5th metacarpals, which appears to be associated with the features of insulin resistance Type A.
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ranking = 0.047593487472828
keywords = polycystic
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7/33. Identification and functional assessment of novel and known insulin receptor mutations in five patients with syndromes of severe insulin resistance.

    We analyzed the insulin receptor gene in four patients with leprechaunism and one with type A insulin resistance. We detected novel and previously reported mutations. The novel mutants were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells to evaluate the consequences for insulin receptor function. A type A insulin resistance patient from morocco was homozygous for Arg252His mutation, similar to a previously described type A patient from japan. A patient with leprechaunism was homozygous for the Ser323Leu mutation, previously identified in homozygous form in two patients with Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome. Phenotypic expression of this mutation is variable. A patient with leprechaunism is compound heterozygous for the previously described Arg1092Trp mutation and a nonsense mutation in codon 897. Another patient with leprechaunism was homozygous for a novel Asn431Asp mutation, which only partially reduces insulin proreceptor processing and activation of signaling cascades. The novel Leu93Gln mutation that fully disrupts proreceptor processing was found in one allele in a patient with leprechaunism. A nonsense mutation at codon 1122 was in the other allele. These results expand the number of pathogenic insulin receptor mutations and demonstrate the variability in their phenotypic expression. The biochemical analysis of mutant insulin receptors does not reliably predict whether the phenotype will be leprechaunism, the Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, or type A insulin resistance. The previously reported correlation between fibroblast insulin binding and duration of patient survival was not observed.
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ranking = 0.0019558578190693
keywords = ovary
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8/33. Is this patient insulin resistant? How much does it matter?

    Alex was an obese 10-year-old girl with a family history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and perhaps polycystic ovarian syndrome. Her physical examination was significant for a central accumulation of body fat and acanthosis nigricans. Although the laboratory studies indicated that Alex was not diabetic and probably not glucose intolerant, she could be insulin resistant (IR). Should any further evaluation be done? If Alex is IR, what kind of treatment should be offered? The following discussion addresses these questions by reviewing the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and consequences of isolated IR.
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ranking = 0.023796743736414
keywords = polycystic
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9/33. polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for primary providers.

    PCOS is a metabolic syndrome that exists throughout the world with much clinical heterogeneity. PCOS is now appreciated as encompassing two interrelated metabolic phenomena--insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. patients present with oligo-amenorrhea and clinical hyperandrogenism, and the diagnosis is based on clinical grounds with few laboratory tests necessary. Because patients are at higher than normal risk for diabetes, glucose intolerance, and hyperlipidemia, and perhaps at higher risk for coronary heart disease, newly diagnosed patients with PCOS should be evaluated for glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The cornerstone of therapy today includes weight management, and further therapeutic intervention is focused on reproductive and cardiovascular health and treatment of insulin resistance. Clinical case continued The 17-year-old mentioned in the beginning of this article probably does have PCOS. She fits the clinical criteria: oligo-ovulation and hyper-androgenism (the acne and hirsutism). In addition, she is obese, which is also associated with PCOS. Her TSH and prolactin were normal, and as her presentation was not suggestive of an adrenal tumor or congenital adrenal hyperplasia (she had mild hirsutism, and those diagnoses are associated with more severe hyperandrogenism), no further laboratory evaluation was deemed necessary. Once the diagnosis was made, she was screened for lipid abnormalities and for glucose intolerance. Her LDL was 150, HDL 35; oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was normal. A pregnancy test was negative, and she was started on OCPs. Devoting herself to exercise and dietary change, she lost 10 pounds in her first 3 months after diagnosis. Her hirsutism and acne have improved with the OCPs and weight loss, and her menses are regular. She has elected to defer oral insulin sensitizers until her weight loss has stabilized. Findings PCOS is common in reproductive-aged women. diagnosis is clinical and is supported by lab findings; there is significant clinical heterogeneity. insulin resistance is likely central to the pathophysiology along with androgen excess. health implications include infertility, diabetes, endometrial cancer, hyperlipidemia, and possibly coronary heart disease. Treatment is evolving and includes weight loss, OCPs, and insulin sensitizers.
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ranking = 4
keywords = ovary syndrome, ovary
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10/33. Clinical course of genetic diseases of the insulin receptor (type A and Rabson-Mendenhall syndromes): a 30-year prospective.

    The interaction of insulin with its cell surface receptor is the first step in insulin action and the first identified target of insulin resistance. The insulin resistance in several syndromic forms of extreme insulin resistance has been shown to be caused by mutations in the receptor gene. We studied 8 female patients with the type A form of extreme insulin resistance and 3 patients (2 male and 1 female) with the Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome and followed the natural history of these patients for up to 30 years. The 11 patients ranged in age from 7 to 32 years at presentation. All 11 patients had extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism in the female patients, and all but 1 were of normal body weight. This phenotype strongly predicts mutations in the insulin receptor: of the 8 patients studied, 7 were found to have mutations. Similar results from the literature are found in other patients with type A and Rabson-Mendenhall syndromes and leprechaunism. The hyperandrogenic state resulting from hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in these patients was extreme: 6 of 8 patients had ovarian surgery to correct the polycystic ovarian syndrome and elevation of serum testosterone. By contrast, a larger group of insulin-resistant patients who were obese with hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans (hair-AN syndrome) did not have a high probability of mutations in the insulin receptor. The morbidity and mortality of these patients were high: 3 of 11 died, 9 of 11 were diabetic and 1 had impaired glucose tolerance, and 7 of 9 patients had 1 or more severe complication of diabetes. Our literature review revealed that the mortality of leprechaunism is so high that the term leprechaunism should be restricted to infants or young children under 2 years of age. Analogous to patients with the common forms of type 2 diabetes, these patients had a heterogeneous course. In 2 patients who were able to maintain extremely high endogenous insulin production, the fasting blood glucose remained normal even though post-glucose-challenge levels were elevated. Most patients, however, required large doses of exogenous insulin to ameliorate the severe hyperglycemia. Preliminary results of a recent study suggest that recombinant leptin administration may benefit these patients with severe insulin resistance.
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ranking = 0.023796743736414
keywords = polycystic
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