Cases reported "Intestinal Atresia"

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1/35. Ultrasonographic detection of intrauterine intussusception resulting in ileal atresia complicated by meconium peritonitis.

    A neonate with ileal atresia (IA) complicated by meconium peritonitis (MP) whose prenatal ultrasonography (US) detected an intrauterine intussusception (IUI) is reported. Fetal ascites, dilated bowel loops, and abdominal calcifications were identified on serial US from 25 weeks of gestation. Intestinal loops with high echogenecity and a "target-like" appearance suggestive of IUI were detected in the right lower quadrant. The 2,680-g male was delivered vaginally at term and underwent a laparotomy. Fibrous adhesions and small calcifications were scattered throughout the peritoneal cavity. IA (interrupted type) was confirmed 17.0 cm cranial to the ileocecal valve (ICV). An ileo-ileal intussusception was also found between 16.5 cm and 9.0 cm cranial to the ICV. Partial resection of the ileum and an ileo-ileal anastomosis was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. In this case, the pathological process of IUI resulting in IA and MP was demonstrated sonographically by identifying the "target-like" appearance in the fetus.
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2/35. choledochal cyst associated with duodenal obstruction.

    The association between congenital duodenal obstruction and concomitant choledochal cyst has not been reported, although duodenal obstruction is known to be associated with many other anomalies. The authors describe 2 patients with choledochal cyst with duodenal obstruction. In 1 patient, a diverticulum type of choledochal cyst was found within an annular pancreas. Cyst excision, choledochojejunostomy, and side-to-side duodeno-duodenostomy were performed. The other patient showed separated duodenal atresia and other multiple anomalies including imperforate anus. A choledochal cyst was noted at the time of duodeno-duodenostomy and sigmoid colostomy. Cyst-enterostomy was performed at the age of 8 months, but the patient died of multiple anomalies. Intraoperative cholangiography indicated an anomalous pancreatobiliary ductal junction (APBDJ). In both patients the bile in the cyst contained high levels of amylase, suggesting the presence of an APBDJ. An APBDJ is considered to play an etiologic role in the development of the choledochal cysts associated with duodenal obstruction.
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3/35. Use of intraluminal stents in multiple intestinal atresia.

    Multiple intestinal atresia presents a difficult technical problem because of extreme loss of intestinal length, disparity of residual bowel wall size, and discontinuity of multiple short intestinal segments. The authors report on a 3,000-g infant with gastroschisis complicated by intrauterine volvulus and multiple intestinal atresias who was treated successfully with intraluminal stenting and sutureless anastomoses. A total of 25 cm of small bowel was salvaged including 13 segments each measuring 1 to 8 cm in length. Subsequent radiographic studies showed spontaneous anastomosis with a compartmental configuration of the residual bowel and decreased transit time. Five months postoperatively, the patient was weaned off total parenteral nutrition completely and one year later is growing and gaining weight with 4 to 6 bowel movements per day.
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4/35. Radiological localization of the ampulla of vater in an infant with duodenal atresia.

    The authors describe an infant with a duodenal diaphragm in whom preoperative radiographs localized the ampulla of vater within the medial wall of the diaphragm. This frequent close association must be kept in mind in order to avert surgical injury to this vital structure.
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5/35. colon atresia and stenosis in zimbabwe: case reports and a review of the literature.

    Two neonates with colon atresia and one with colon stenosis presented in Harare over a six month period. The first patient was treated with a local resection and primary anastomosis for a type II colon atresia. The second had an excision of obstructing septum, widening coloplasty and cecostomy for a type I colon atresia. The third patient had a sigmoido-rectoplasty and cecostomy for a sigmoid colon stenosis. The third patient also had a cystic duplication of the small bowel. No other anomalies were noted. All three patients survived and were developing normally at six months post-operatively. A review of medical records at Harare and Parirenyatwa hospitals revealed no other case of colon atresia in the last 10 years. The incidence by site of gastro-intestinal atresias in zimbabwe is consistent with other reports.
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6/35. Lactic acidosis from thiamine deficiency during parenteral nutrition in a two-year-old boy.

    This is a case report of a two-year-old boy who was operated electively for a blind-loop syndrome of the proximal jejunum. Because of the appearance of chylous ascites, parenteral nutrition was carried out postoperatively. The boy developed a severe uncompensated acidosis and paralytic ileus. Relaparotomy on suspicion of ischemic bowel did not explain the cause of the acidosis and ileus. Postoperatively, the child's condition worsened, requiring intensive care. The drastically elevated lactate levels corroborated the eventually suspected diagnosis of a vitamin B1 deficiency syndrome. The administration of thiamine within two hours produced correction of the acidosis without further bicarbonate therapy. In 24 hours circulation was stabilized. Two months post-operatively the boy had completely recovered from the sequelae of his shock event.
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7/35. gastroschisis complicated by intestinal atresia.

    gastroschisis complicated by intestinal atresia is a complex problem. Six cases are presented. A review of the literature and of our own cases shows a high mortality rate. Success or failure is related more to the pathology present than to any specific method of operative management. Resection and primary anastomosis is the favored method of treatment, as the intestine heals well in spite of its appearance. Primary closure of the abdominal wall musculature and skin is done whenever possible. A gastrostomy is used uniformly. Intravenous hyperalimentation is critical to survival of these babies and should be used early. The use of this therapeutic modality allows for the onset of gastrointestinal function spontaneously (often over prolonged periods of time) without nutritional deprivation. Intestinal atresias almost always are easy to identify in babies with gastroschisis. Extensive dissection and mobilization of this friable intestine is contraindicated in those babies in whom an atresia is not obvious but only suspected. In such cases the gastroschisis defect should be managed by whatever method is deemed appropriate and the baby observed while receiving intravenous nutritional support. If an atresia is present, it can be managed later in the baby's course by resection and primary anastomosis.
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8/35. Simultaneous correction of biliary atresia and small bowel atresia in the neonate.

    The coexistence of biliary atresia and small bowel atresia has been described. However, attempts to correct the biliary atresia at the same time as small bowel atresia repair have not been detailed. In 1986, a 2,170-g female was delivered at 36 weeks' gestation. Postpartum, duodenal obstruction was suspected after oral feedings were not tolerated. At 37 hours after birth, laparotomy showed unsuspected biliary atresia in addition to intestinal malrotation, duodenal web, and type IIIb jejunal atresia with an apple-peel configuration of the upper jejunum and mesentery supplied by the superior mesenteric artery with normal small bowel length and normal ileal mesentery. A modified Roux-en-Y hepatic portoenterostomy was performed using the blind end of the apple-peel configuration of jejunum, with a side-to-side duodenojejunostomy 25 cm from the portoenterostomy. Microscopic examination of the fibrous extrahepatic biliary tissue showed a disarray of small bile ductules. The maximal ductal size at the portoenterostomy site was 600 microns. A liver biopsy specimen showed normal architecture with eosinophils infiltrating the portal triads and periductal areas. Postoperatively, she has maintained normal growth and development with no episodes of cholangitis. liver biopsies at 1 year and 3 years were normal. At 4 years, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum proteins, liver enzymes, coagulation factors, and trace elements were normal. We conclude that simultaneous correction of biliary atresia and small bowel atresia can be accomplished in the neonate with excellent early results.
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9/35. laparoscopy-assisted surgery for prenatally diagnosed small bowel atresia: simple, safe, and virtually scar free.

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe a new technique for the surgical management of prenatally diagnosed small bowel atresia. methods: Under general anesthesia, a 5-mm trocar was inserted using an open technique through an intraumbilical incision. The proximal atretic bowel end was identified using laparoscopy and mobilized toward the umbilicus using an additional 3-mm trocar inserted in the left lower quadrant. The umbilical trocar then was removed, and a ring retractor was inserted into the trocar site and used to expand the wound to deliver both atretic bowel ends. The bowel was repaired and returned to the abdomen through the umbilical wound. The umbilical fascia and skin were closed conventionally. RESULTS: Three patients were reviewed. Two had minimal abdominal distension, and the atretic bowel ends could be identified easily; laparoscopy-assisted surgery was successful. The third case had significant dilatation, and laparotomy was required. Postoperatively, there was minimal abdominal scarring, and the umbilicus was normal in appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Although this experience is limited to 3 patients, this technique is simple, safe, and virtually scar free and can be applied for the treatment of neonates with prenatally diagnosed small bowel atresia, especially if there is minimal abdominal distension at birth.
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10/35. Novel procedures for enhancing high jejunal atresia repair: bilateral side-plication and plication before anastomosis.

    In high jejunal atresia (HJA), discrepancy between the diameters of the proximal and distal jejunum can often be significant and cause major anastomotic complications. We developed 2 novel procedures to enhance conventional jejuno-jejunostomy (JJ): bilateral side-plication during JJ (BSP): plication of both lateral aspects of the dilated proximal jejunum, and jejunal plication before JJ (pre-P): plication of the jejunum proximal to the planned JJ site along the anti-mesenteric line. We used BSP in a neonate with a membranous stenosis 5 cm distal to the duodeno-jejunal flexure, and pre-P in 2 neonates, both with HJA and hugely dilated proximal jejunum. By using BSP, the jejunum could be plicated symmetrically near the closed jejunotomy, allowing the caliber change at the closed jejunotomy to be smooth without any kinking. If simple anti-mesenteric plication had been performed instead, proximal-to-distal kinking caused by closing the jejunotomy site transversely after the membrane was excised could have worsened. By using pre-P, the caliber change across the JJ could be made smooth and symmetric. If plication had been performed along the anti-mesenteric line after completing the JJ, the proximal jejunum near the JJ would have become asymmetrical causing the JJ to become kinked. Postoperatively, there were no JJ-related complications, and all subjects are well after a mean follow-up period of 3.0 years. Our novel procedures are simple and appear to enhance JJ by controlling kinking at the JJ site.
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