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1/11. Intestinal anisakiasis. First case report from north america.

    The first case of intestinal anisakiasis in north america is described. This parasitic disease is recognized as a public health hazard in japan and europe. Man becomes infected with a larval form of the nematode anisakis by consuming raw or undercooked fish containing the parasite. Typically, patients present with acute abdominal syndromes. Clinical and reontgenographic features may cause confusion with regional enteritis. Histologically, a striking oesinophilic granulomatous reaction occurs. anisakiasis is most effectively prevented by discouraging the consumption of raw fish.
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2/11. anisakiasis of the colon: report of two cases with emphasis on the diagnostic and therapeutic value of colonoscopy.

    anisakiasis of the colon is a rare entity as compared with gastric anisakiasis, and its diagnosis is very difficult. We present here two cases--a 42-year-old woman and a 30-year-old woman--of anisakiasis of the colon treated by colonoscopic removal of the worm without surgery. The importance of colonoscopy for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease is briefly discussed.
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3/11. Intestinal anisakiasis. A case diagnosed by morphologic and immunologic methods.

    The diagnosis of the fourth reported case of intestinal anisakiasis in the united states was based on the morphologic characteristics of the worm in histologic sections of resected ileum. Detection of antibodies to the worm by a radioallergosorbent test (RAST), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) support the diagnosis. IgE antibodies in patient serum reacted specifically to larval anisakis antigens but not to larval ascaris antigens in the RAST. IgG and IgM antibodies to larval anisakis antigen could be detected by ELISA up to six months after infection. IFA findings demonstrated that patient serum recognized the excretory-secretory products produced by the worm and showed their presence in vivo. These products appear to originate from the excretory pore and dorsal esophageal gland of the larval parasite.
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4/11. anisakiasis confirmed by radiography of the large intestine.

    As yet, there has been no report of acute anisakiasis of the large intestine diagnosed by radiographic demonstration of the larvae. We present such a case, in which roentgenologic examination revealed anisakis larvae in the ascending colon.
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5/11. anisakiasis caused by herring in vinegar: a little known medical problem.

    Six cases of intestinal anisakiasis, or herring worm disease, diagnosed over a two year period in a Belgian gastroenterology unit are described. They presented mainly as intestinal obstructions and larvae of this marine nematode were found in the intestinal wall of two of the four patients who were operated on. In two other patients awareness of the diagnosis permitted conservative treatment and spontaneous healing. In five patients symptoms developed after they had eaten herring marinated in vinegar, a hitherto little known source of the herring worm disease.
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6/11. anisakiasis.

    Larval forms of nematodes of the Anisakidae family (cod or herring worms) can cause disease in people who eat raw or undercooked seafood. These nematodes are widespread along the eastern and western coasts of the united states, and the larvae can be found in fresh fish sold in any grocery store. Luminal infestation causes few symptoms. Invasive anisakiasis may be acute or chronic and may involve the stomach or the small intestine.
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7/11. Intestinal anisakiasis: clinical and radiologic features.

    We report the clinical and radiologic features of 12 patients with acute intestinal anisakiasis. diagnosis of anisakiasis was made immunologically by positive antibody to anisakis larvae and a recent history of raw fish intake. Severe abdominal pain was a major symptom in these patients-half experienced fluid levels indicating ileus on plain x-ray films of the abdomen. Radiologic findings included irregular thickening of the jejunum, ileum, or colon, with mucosal edema and luminal narrowing with dilatation of the proximal intestine. In two cases a thread-like filling defect suggesting a worm was visualized on the x-ray film. These findings were interpreted as anisakiasis. Although ileus developed in some patients, all were treated and cured completely without surgery.
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8/11. Intestinal anisakiasis: a new new zealand disease.

    anisakiasis is not an uncommon disease in countries where raw fish is a delicacy. This example of intestinal obstruction following reaction to a migrating anisakis larva is the first case reported in new zealand.
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9/11. Intestinal anisakiasis. Report of a case and recovery of larvae from market fish.

    Intestinal anisakiasis refers to the accidental infection of humans by a marine nematode as a result of eating raw fish which contains larval stages of the nematode sub-family Anisakinae. The symptoms mimic appendicitis or regional enteritis and most cases are diagnosed post-operatively. This patient developed acute intestinal symptoms two weeks after eating raw salmon. A degenerating 150 micron larva accompanied by acute inflammation and granulation tissue was found in an adhesive band which extended from her jejunum to her omentum. Examination of a single salmon obtained from the same market where the patient shopped resulted in the recovery of 5 viable larvae, and confirmed the impression that anisakine infection of market fish is common. A related species (Phocanema) causes infestation, but not symptomatic disease. Although common in countries where raw fish is routinely eaten (e.g., japan), its frequency is not proportional to the size of the group at risk, suggesting that predisposing factors influence the course of exposure. Preventative measures include freezing at -17 degrees for 24 hours.
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10/11. anisakiasis: nematode infestation producing small-bowel obstruction.

    A case of small-bowel obstruction occurred secondary to an uncommon parasitic disease, anisakiasis. intestinal obstruction is a rare manifestation of this disease. anisakiasis may be seen initially with nausea and vomiting or may mimic acute appendicitis or Crohn's disease. The predisposing factor in all cases is the ingestion of raw fish, and the disease is preventable by cooking fish at greater than 60 degrees C for a short time or by freezing at less than -20 degrees C for more than 24 hours. anisakiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of small-bowel obstruction in patients whose diet includes raw fish.
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