Cases reported "Intestinal Polyps"

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1/54. peutz-jeghers syndrome: case report.

    A case of peutz-jeghers syndrome (PJS) in an African girl is presented to document the clinical presentation, management and follow up of this condition. The patient who presented with black buccal mucosal hyperpigmentation and clinical features of jejuno-jejunal intussusception was successfully managed by operative reduction of the intussusception and polypectomy. She is being followed up for evidence of malignant transformation in associated intestinal polyps and development of extra-intestinal malignancies at other sites. The management of PJS in light of recent trends is discussed, especially with reference to suggested protocols for screening and surveillance of sites at supposed risk of tumour development.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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2/54. angiography in the diagnosis and therapy of hemorrhage from the large bowel.

    angiography has added a new dimension to the management of hemorrhage from the large bowel. In patients with diverticular hemorrhage, mesenteric angiography not only localizes the bleeding site but, in addition, the bleeding can be acutely controlled with intraarterial infusion of vasopressin, making an emergency colectomy unnecessary. Similarly in patients bleeding from inflammatory bowel disease or in patients with post-operative hemorrhage, angiography provides information about the nature of the lesion and selective arterial infusions of vasopressin can control the bleeding. At times intestinal varices have angiographically been demonstrated as a potential source of rectal hemorrhage while in patients with unexplained lower gastrointestinal bleeding and repeatedly negative barium and endoscopic examinations, angiography has been valuable for the diagnosis of angiodysplasia of the colon.
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keywords = operative
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3/54. Inflammatory fibroid polyp of the duodenum.

    Duodenal inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFP) are extemely rare lesions indistinguishable from submucosal tumors by endoscopic inspection alone. Like gastric inflammatory fibroid polyps, they can be managed by endoscopic polypectomy or mucosectomy. However, preoperative diagnosis of this benign lesion is difficult. Here we present a case of duodenal IFP causing gastrointestinal bleeding that was evaluated by endoscopic ultrasound before surgical removal. On endosonography, the duodenal IFP appeared as a coarsely heterogeneous isoechoic and hypoechoic mass circumscribed by a distinct margin and arising from the third layer of the duodenal wall. The endosonographic appearance of this lesion was in marked contrast to that previously reported for gastric IFPs, which have tended to appear as hypoechoic homogeneous lesions with indistinct margins. Endosonographic evaluation of suspected IFPs before endoscopic or surgical treatment is useful. However, the endosonographic appearances of duodenal and gastric IFPs may be significantly different, possibly because of differences in the makeup of the duodenal and gastric walls.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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4/54. peutz-jeghers syndrome: is family screening needed?

    In a 7-year-old boy, a small-bowel polyp was found intraoperatively as a lead point of an intussusception. Histologically, a hamartoma was found and the clinical work-up revealed peutz-jeghers syndrome (PJS). Additionally, all four asymptomatic siblings showed intestinal polyposis. All children in a family with PJS should be properly investigated. In case of an intussusception with a polyp in a critical location, a surgical procedure should follow.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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5/54. Enteroscopy as a tool for diagnosing gastrointestinal bleeding requiring blood transfusion.

    iron-deficiency anemia secondary to gastrointestinal blood loss is a common cause of hospitalization. In many cases, the bleeding site cannot be defined despite thorough routine examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate push enteroscopy as a diagnostic tool in patients with severe anemia, secondary to recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, that required management by transfusion. Thirty-five consecutive push enteroscopy investigations were performed in 1998 and 1999 on 25 patients (15 men, 10 women). Mean age was 57 /- 16 years (range, 33-83). All patients had received blood transfusions because of pronounced anemia secondary to gastrointestinal bleeding. Before push enteroscopy, all patients had been investigated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and small-bowel radiography using the double contrast technique; no bleeding site was found. In addition, 10 of 25 patients had been investigated beforehand with 99mTc-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy, and 5 of 25 with scintigraphy for meckel diverticulum. Two patients were also investigated with angiography before the push enteroscopy, and in six patients an additional total intraoperative enteroscopy was performed, preceded by a new colonoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and push enteroscopy. A bleeding site was disclosed in 15 of 25 (60%) patients. In 7 of 25 patients (28%) the bleeding site was found in the stomach or esophagus. even though the patients had undergone one or two esophagogastroduodenoscopies earlier with normal findings. Total intraoperative enteroscopy identified a bleeding site in four of six (67%) patients studied. Two patients had bleeding hemangiomas that were resected surgically. Two patients had small intestinal adenomas, one with adenocarcinoma in situ. Push enteroscopy performed with an overtube inserted under fluoroscopic guidance is an important diagnostic tool in patients in whom conventional examinations do not disclose bleeding sites. Interestingly, 28% of patients had bleeding within reach of the gastroscope, indicating that a new upper endoscopy should be recommended before push enteroscopy is performed. When no positive findings are seen on push enteroscopy and the patient is affected by severe, recurrent iron-deficiency anemia, total intraoperative enteroscopy should be considered.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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6/54. Cronkhite-canada syndrome associated with advanced rectal cancer treated by a subtotal colectomy: report of a case.

    A 41-year-old man with Cronkhite-canada syndrome presented with multiple juvenile polyps with hyperplastic and adenomatous changes throughout his stomach and entire colorectum. dysgeusia was recognized and the degree of hypoproteinemia was remarkable. A barium enema study and colonofiberscopy also revealed an advanced cancer in the rectum. Chronic hepatitis B and membranous glomerulonephritis were also present. It was difficult to design a conservative protocol using steroids for the treatment of protein-loosing enteropathy because the patient was a hepatitis b virus carrier. As a result, a subtotal colectomy while preserving the cecum with cecorectal anastomosis was performed. Pathologically, the ulcerated rectal tumor was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with invasion into the muscularis propria. Most polyps showed cystically dilated glands without dysplasia or edematous stroma with inflammatory cell infiltration. A few polyps were juvenile-type polyps with adenoma components. Although no remarkable improvement was observed in the hypoproteinemia postoperatively, an alpha1-antitrypsin clearance test showed a significant decrease in protein loss from the gastrointestinal tract, which was only about one third of the loss seen preoperatively. These findings lead us to conclude that when improvement using conservative treatment can be neither obtained nor is expected, then the use of surgery should be considered when treating patients with Cronkhite-canada syndrome.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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7/54. The use of ultrasound to demonstrate small bowel polyps in a patient with peutz-jeghers syndrome.

    A 21-year-old woman presented to the accident and emergency department with a 2-day history of lower abdominal pain. Her lips had the stigma of melanosis. Previously, she had received a diagnosis of peutz-jeghers syndrome, although no polyps had been detected in small and large bowel barium studies performed approximately 8 years before. Clinically, the patient had mild deep lower abdominal tenderness, and a mass was palpable in the suprapubic region. Urgent ultrasound showed ileoileal intussusception and small polyps in the lumen of the small bowel. At laparotomy, ileoileal intussusception was confirmed. It was not possible to reduce it because of nonviable small bowel, so 20 cm of the ileum, including the intussusception, was excised. After this, intraoperative enteroscopy was performed, showing further polyps in the small bowel distal and proximal to the intussusception, which were excised locally. Only a few reports in the literature describe ultrasound used to diagnose to condition. Intraoperative enteroscopy has been recommended as the treatment of choice because it allows identification of polyps that previously would have been missed.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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8/54. Severe intestinal bleeding caused by intestinal metastases of a primary angiosarcome of the thyroid gland.

    A 75 year old male presented with gastrointestinal bleeding after resection of both upper lobes of the lungs because of metastases. One year ago an angiosarcoma was the reason for a complete removal of the thyroid gland. In esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy we found multiple hemorrhagically stained polyploids lesions in the postbulbar duodenum and jejunum. colonoscopy showed isolated polyploid lesions of the right flexura. Because of persistent gastrointestinal bleeding a diagnostic laparotomy was done. Intraoperative intestinoscopy demonstrated multiple bleeding metastasis. To remove many of the bleeding lesions two longer intestinal segments of the jejunum and ileum were resected. The histology of the metastases showed arrangements of polygonal cells with prominent nucleoli and atypical mitosis. immunohistochemistry identified CD 31, vimentin and factor viii associated antigen. There was an erosion of the superficial intestinal mucosal cells with resulting hemorrhage; same histology had been found in the thyroid gland and the right upper lobe of lung. Eight days after surgery the patient died because of respiratory and circulatory insufficiency.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/54. carcinoembryonic antigen: clinical and historical aspects.

    To further define and determine the usefulness of CEA, 1100 CEA determinations have been made over the past two years at The ohio State University hospitals on patients with a variety of malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Correlation of CEA titers with history and clinical course has yielded interesting results not only in cancers of entodermally derived tissues, for which CEA has become an established adjunct in management, but also in certain other neoplasms and inflammatory states. The current total of 225 preoperative CEA determinations in colorectal carcinomas shows an 81% incidence of elevation, with postoperative titers remaining elevated in patients having only palliative surgery but falling to the negative zone after curative procedures. An excellent correlation exists between CEA levels and grade of tumor (more poorly differentiated tumors showing lower titers). Left-side colon lesions show significantly higher titers than right-side lesions. CEA values have been shown to be elevated in 90% of pancreatic carcinomas studied, in 60% of metastatic breast cancers, and in 35% of other tumors (ovary, head and neck, bladder, kidney, and prostate cancers). CEA levels in 35 ulcerative colitis patients show elevation during exacerbations (51%). During remissions titers fall toward normal, although in 31% still remaining greater than 2.5 ng/ml. In the six colectomies performed, CEA levels all fell into the negative zone postoperatively. Forty percent of adenomatous polyps showed elevated CEA titers (range 2.5-10.0) that dropped following polypectomy to the negative zone. Preoperative and postoperative CEA determinations are important in assessing the effectiveness of surgery. Serial CEA determinations are important in the follow-up period and in evaluation of the other modes of therapy (e.g., chemotherapy). These determinations of tumor antigenicity give the physician added prognostic insight into the behavior of the tumor growth. Rectal examination with guaiac determinations, sigmoidoscopy, cytology, barium enema, and a good clinical evaluation remain the primary tools for detecting colorectal disease. However, in the high-risk patient suspicious of developing cancer, CEA determinations as well as colonoscopy are now being used increasingly and provide additional highly valuable tools in the physician's armamentarium.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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10/54. Intraoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy--"the difficult polypectomy".

    An alternative to transcolonic polypectomy, transabdominally directed, transanal colonoscopic polypectomy, for patients who require polyp removal but in whose cases standard colonoscopic approach has failed is presented. The early results are excellent, and the method also can be applied to other patients who have colonic polyps who undergo procedures such as hysterectomy and cholecystectomy.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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