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11/43. Strangulated umbilical hernia including a mesenteric cyst: a rare cause of acute abdomen.

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal lesions. They are usually diagnosed as an incidental laparotomy finding in adults but in childhood, they may present with acute abdomen. In this report, a 72-year old female was referred to our hospital, suffering from acute abdominal pain, several episodes of nausea and vomiting. Clinical abdominal examination revealed an irreducible recurrent umbilical hernia. The patient had both muscular defense and abdominal tenderness. Plain abdominal radiography showed multiple air-fluid levels. With these findings, a diagnosis of acute abdominal pathology was accepted and an urgent laparotomy was performed. A 5-cm-diameter mesenteric cyst was excised from the mesentery of the proximal jejunum and a prosthetic mesh was placed for incisional hernia. This is the first report of a strangulated umbilical hernia complicated with a mesenteric cyst.
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ranking = 1
keywords = intra-abdominal
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12/43. Spinal epidural abscess presenting as intra-abdominal pathology: a case report and literature review.

    Spinal epidural abscess is a rare infectious disease. However, if left unrecognized and untreated, the clinical outcome of spinal epidural abscess can be devastating. Correctly diagnosing a spinal epidural abscess in a timely fashion is often difficult, particularly if the clinician does not actively consider the diagnosis. The most common presenting symptoms of spinal epidural abscess include backache, radicular pain, weakness, and sensory deficits. However, early in its course, spinal epidural abscess can also present with vague and nondescript manifestations. In this report, we describe a case of spinal epidural abscess presenting as abdominal pain, and review the literature describing other cases of spinal epidural abscess presenting as intra-abdominal pathology.
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ranking = 5
keywords = intra-abdominal
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13/43. Internal hemorrhage caused by a twisted malignant ovarian dysgerminoma: ultrasonographic findings of a rare case and review of the literature.

    PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer presents as an acute abdomen very rarely. The purpose of the study is the description of a right ovarian malignant dysgerminoma presenting as an abdominal emergency. CASE: A 16-year-old white female presented with acute abdominal pain in the right iliac fossa. On physical examination the abdomen was acute and a mass in the right lower abdomen was palpated. The patient was sexually active and bimanual gynecological examination revealed the presence of a large lobulated solid tumor in the position of the right adnexa. Ultrasound examination showed the presence of a large, multilobulated, heterogeneous, predominantly solid pelvic mass. color flow imaging showed intratumoral flow signals. The uterus and the left ovary had normal size and echo-texture. Fluid was found in the cul-de-sac and in Morisson's space. An immediate exploratory laparotomy exposed the presence of a twisted right ovarian mass and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A superficial tumoral vessel actively bleeding was seen. Peritoneal fluid was obtained for cytology. The intra-abdominal hemorrhage ceased when the ovarian pedicle was clamped. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy and biopsy of the omentum. Pathologic analysis revealed a malignant dysgerminoma of the right ovary, expanding to the mesosalpinx. Cytology was positive for malignancy. Postoperative CT scan of the upper and lower abdomen was negative. The patient was assigned to FIGO Stage IIC and referred for platinum-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Ovarian malignant dysgerminoma may present as an acute abdomen because of torsion, passive blood congestion, rupture of superficial tumoral vessels and subsequent intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Ovarian dysgerminoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in a young woman with acute surgical abdomen and a solid heterogeneous pelvic mass detected by ultrasonographic scan.
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ranking = 2
keywords = intra-abdominal
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14/43. Small bowel obstruction by the silicone tube of the gastric band.

    A wide range of operations are used today for morbid obesity. Adjustable gastric banding (AGB) is one of the most widespread. Numerous complications after AGB are known, namely gastric perforation, band slippage, penetration of the band into stomach, port disconnection, port-site infection, etc. The authors present a case of small bowel obstruction caused by the intra-abdominal silicone tube of the gastric band in a woman with AGB performed 9 years before, with a very good result and considerable weight loss. She was operated as an emergency, and part of the terminal ileum was found incarcerated around and between the silicone tube and the anterior abdominal wall. Bowel resection for intestinal necrosis, with terminal ileostomy, was performed, followed 1 month later by an end-to-end ileo-ileal anastomosis. The patient recovered without sequelae.
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ranking = 1
keywords = intra-abdominal
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15/43. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage for assessing acute abdomen in pediatric oncology and stem cell transplantation patients.

    Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is a technique designed to sample the peritoneal cavity for evidence of catastrophic pathology, while incurring minimum risk. The authors describe two unstable pediatric patients, one with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and shock and one with fanconi anemia on high-frequency oscillation after stem cell transplantation, both presumed to have intra-abdominal perforation. DPL was uneventfully performed at the bedside in both patients. The authors suggest DPL be considered as an alternative to laparotomy in critically ill pediatric oncology and stem cell transplantation patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = intra-abdominal
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16/43. Mesenteric cystic lymphangioma: unusual cause of intra-abdominal catastrophe in an adult.

    Mesenteric cystic lymphangiomas (MCLs) are rare benign cystic tumours of unknown aetiology, most often seen in paediatric patients. The clinical presentation is diverse, ranging from an incidentally discovered abdominal cyst to symptoms of acute abdomen. A 20-year-old male presented with generalised abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting of several hours duration following heavy lifting. Emergency laparotomy revealed a 15 x 10 x 8-cm pedicled cystic mass of the mid-ileal mesentery, causing a volvulus. The cyst and a 20-cm gangrenous intestinal segment were resected with anastomosis. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. MCLs should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic intra-abdominal lesions. Even when asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, they must be treated surgically because of the potential to grow, invade vital structures and develop life-threatening complications.
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ranking = 5
keywords = intra-abdominal
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17/43. Meckel's diverticulitis: a rare etiology of an acute abdomen during pregnancy.

    Perforated Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is a rare complication of pregnancy. Its diagnosis, however, must be considered in all cases of intra-abdominal disease, as its presentation is similar to appendicitis. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment is imperative in these cases due to the high rate of perforation leading to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The usual lesion affecting a patient with MD and a review of the literature on other unusual causes of an acute abdomen in pregnancy is presented in the following report.
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ranking = 1
keywords = intra-abdominal
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18/43. splenosis: an unusual cause of intraabdominal hemorrhage.

    A 31-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. She developed hypovolemic shock from an intra-abdominal bleed. At laparotomy she was found to be bleeding from two areas of splenosis on the uterine ligament. The patient had sustained a ruptured spleen 22 years prior and had no symptomatology from her areas of splenosis. A short review of splenosis is presented.
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ranking = 1
keywords = intra-abdominal
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19/43. Wilms' tumor with acute abdominal pain.

    Acute abdominal pain is the presenting manifestation in approximately 30% of all patients with Willms' tumor. In a small proportion of these patients this pain is significant enough to engender a diagnosis of an acute surgical abdomen. Six of 38 patients with Wilms' tumors treated between the years 1965 and 1975 at the Shands teaching Hospital of the University of florida Medical Center have had significant pain. Our experience with these patients emphasizes the importance of thoroughly palpating the abdomen of any child with a suspected acute surgical condition, following induction of anesthesia and prior to initiating the operation. In the absence of any evidence of an acute surgical problem at the time of the exploratory laparotomy, it is also imperative that a careful intra-abdominal examination be performed to exclude the presence of conditions, such as wilms tumor of the kidney, that may occasionally present in this manner.
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ranking = 1
keywords = intra-abdominal
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20/43. Acute surgical abdominal disease in chronic schizophrenic patients: a unique clinical problem.

    From our experience with chronic schizophrenic patients treated for acute intra-abdominal surgical disease, we present seven examples of this unique clinical condition. In all seven cases the decision to operate was preceded by considerable delay, owing to misleading medical history, patient behavior, and the lack of definitive signs of peritonitis. The intra-operative findings were unexpected, and in all cases the disease had reached an advanced stage. As chronic schizophrenic patients have a distorted perception of pain and seldom demonstrate a clinical picture commensurate with the disease, we advocate that a higher index of suspicion be assigned to these patients than to the average acutely ill patient.
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ranking = 1
keywords = intra-abdominal
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