Cases reported "Intracranial Aneurysm"

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11/348. Application of a rigid endoscope to the microsurgical management of 54 cerebral aneurysms: results in 48 patients.

    OBJECT: To enhance visual confirmation of regional anatomy, endoscopy was introduced during microsurgery for cerebral aneurysms. The risks and benefits are analyzed in the present study. methods: The endoscopic technique was used during microsurgery for 54 aneurysms in 48 patients. Forty-three aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation and 11 were in the posterior circulation. Thirty-eight aneurysms (70.4%) had not ruptured. All ruptured aneurysms in the present series produced Hunt and Hess Grade I or II subarachnoid hemorrhage. After initial exposure achieved with the aid of a microscope, the rigid endoscope was introduced to confirm the regional anatomy, including the aneurysm neck and adjacent structures. The necks of 43 aneurysms were clipped using microscopic control or simultaneous microscopic/endoscopic control. After clipping, the positions of the clip and nearby structures were inspected using the endoscope. Use of the neuroendoscope provided useful information that further clarified the regional anatomy in 44 cases (81.5%) either before or after neck clipping. In nine cases (16.7%), these details were available only with the use of the endoscope. In five cases (9.3%), the surgeons reapplied the clip on the basis of endoscopic information obtained after the initial clipping. There were two cases in which surgical complications were possibly related to the endoscopic procedures (one patient with asymptomatic cerebral contusion and another with transient oculomotor palsy). CONCLUSIONS: It is the authors' impression that the use of the endoscope in the microsurgical management of cerebral aneurysms enhanced the safety and reliability of the surgery. However, there is a prerequisite for the surgeon to be familiar with this instrumentation and fully prepared for the risks and inconveniences of endoscopic procedures.
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12/348. Curved planar reformatted CT angiography: usefulness for the evaluation of aneurysms at the carotid siphon.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Three-dimensional CT angiography uses the data obtained on a contrast-enhanced CT brain scan to generate 3D images of the intracranial vasculature. We describe the methodology of curved planar reformatting (CPR) for CT angiography and characterize its usefulness in the evaluation of aneurysms at the carotid siphon, comparing it with the shaded surface display technique (SSD). methods: Eighty-seven patients with suspected intracranial aneurysms at CT angiography were examined by conventional cerebral angiography, and the patients with aneurysm(s) at the carotid siphon were selected for study. For these patients, the visibility of the neck and fundus of the aneurysms on CT angiograms was compared for those obtained with SSD and those with CPR, and observer reproducibility was evaluated with the kappa statistic. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were confirmed to have an aneurysm at the carotid siphon on conventional angiograms. Seventeen aneurysms were depicted at CT angiography with SSD; 18 aneurysms with CPR. The number of visible aneurysmal necks and fundi was nine and 12, respectively, with SSD; 18 and 18, respectively, with CPR. CONCLUSION: CPR allows better demonstration of the body and neck of an aneurysm at the carotid siphon, which has a tortuous course and is surrounded by complex bony structures. CPR may be a useful adjunct for the evaluation of aneurysms in this region.
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13/348. New semicircular clip for internal carotid artery aneurysms. Technical note.

    BACKGROUND: Complete clipping of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms without residual aneurysmal neck may conflict with preservation of the anterior choroidal artery, posterior communicating artery, or their branches. In addition, the neck of the aneurysm is often situated behind the ICA, as seen through the operative microscope. The blades of fenestrated clips can be inserted over the ICA, followed by reconstruction of the ICA wall to minimize the residual aneurysmal neck. However, the blades are out of the field of vision behind the ICA when they are closed, so that ICA branches or perforators may be clipped together with the aneurysmal neck. We have developed a semicircular clip to avoid this type of misclipping. methods AND RESULTS: We have treated four patients with ruptured ICA aneurysms and two patients with unruptured ICA aneurysms with this semicircular clip. In all cases, the aneurysms were clipped without residual neck, and the ICA branches were preserved. CONCLUSION: This instrumentation is especially useful in cases of ICA aneurysms protruding posteriorly or medially.
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14/348. Post-traumatic dissecting aneurysm of extracranial internal carotid artery: endovascular treatment with stenting.

    Traumatic internal carotid dissection occurs frequently in motor vehicle accidents, typically extracranially, close to the skull base. dissection may lead to stenosis or occlusion of the vessel, possibly with a pseudoaneurysm, symptoms ranging from neck pain to neurological deficits. In symptomatic patients and in cases of pseudoaneurysm, when conservative medical treatment fails, surgery or endovascular treatment are indicated. We report a post-traumatic dissecting aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery successfully treated with stenting via a transfemoral approach.
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15/348. Ischaemic complication following obliteration of unruptured cerebral aneurysms with atherosclerotic or calcified neck.

    We report three cases of ischaemic complications following direct surgery of unruptured cerebral aneurysms having necks with atherosclerotic or calcified walls. Among 30 patients we treated directly for unruptured aneurysm over the last 4 years, 6 had 8 such aneurysms. Atherosclerotic or calcified neck was a major contributor to postoperative ischaemic sequelae in our recent series of unruptured aneurysms treated surgically, and common technical problems during surgery seemed to have caused ischaemic complications in the 3 patients reported here. In this report, attention is given to ischaemic complications in the treatment of such aneurysms.
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16/348. Ballonn-assisted Guglielmi detachable coiling of wide-necked aneurysma: Part II--clinical results.

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the indications and efficacy of balloon-assisted Guglielmi detachable coiling (BAGDC). methods: BAGDC was used for 23 patients (19 women and 4 men; mean age, 55 yr) (17%) of a series of 136 consecutive patients who underwent Guglielmi detachable coiling of aneurysms. Every aneurysm had a wide neck, and 57% were large (11-25 mm in diameter). In each case, a nondetachable silicone balloon was advanced in the parent artery and inflated to occlude the neck of the aneurysm and stabilize the Guglielmi detachable coil delivery microcatheter at the aneurysm neck. Guglielmi detachable coils were then deposited. The balloon was then deflated to verify appropriate coil placement and stability, and finally, the Guglielmi detachable coils were detached. This process was repeated until the aneurysm was suitably embolized. RESULTS: One hundred percent aneurysm embolization was achieved in 19 patients (83%), and 95 to 100% embolization was achieved in 4 patients (17%). Twenty-two patients (96%) were at their preprocedure neurological baseline after the procedure. There were three complications in the study. One patient died after sustaining subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm followed by a hemorrhagic infarction. She had undergone an unsuccessful clip ligation of her aneurysm. A second patient developed an intra-arterial thrombus at the site of balloon deployment. She sustained ischemic events that were treated with thrombolysis and anticoagulation. She made a complete recovery. A third patient developed an intra-arterial thrombus that was noted during the procedure. She was treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis and experienced no clinical sequelae. No permanent complications could be attributed to the BAGDC technique. The median clinical follow-up time was 10 months. No patient required additional treatment or developed a recurrent aneurysm neck or lumen. CONCLUSION: BAGDC is a promising adjunct to the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms. The balloon serves two purposes: it stabilizes the microcatheter in the aneurysm during coil delivery, and it forces the coil to assume the three-dimensional shape of the aneurysm without impinging on the parent artery.
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17/348. Efficacy and current limitations of intravascular stents for intracranial internal carotid, vertebral, and basilar artery aneurysms.

    OBJECT: Results of previous in vitro and in vivo experimental studies have suggested that placement of a porous stent within the parent artery across the aneurysm neck may hemodynamically uncouple the aneurysm from the parent vessel, leading to thrombosis of the aneurysm. For complex wide-necked aneurysms, a stent may also aid packing of the aneurysm with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) by acting as a rigid scaffold that prevents coil herniation into the parent vessel. Recently, improved stent system delivery technology has allowed access to the tortuous vascular segments of the intracranial system. The authors report here on the use of intracranial stents to treat aneurysms involving different segments of the internal carotid artery (ICA), the vertebral artery (VA), and the basilar artery (BA). methods: Ten patients with intracranial aneurysms located at ICA segments (one petrous, two cavernous, and three paraclinoid aneurysms), the VA proximal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery origin (one aneurysm), or the BA trunk (three aneurysms) were treated since January 1998. In eight patients, stent placement across the aneurysm neck was followed (immediately in four patients and at a separate procedure in the remaining four) by coil placement in the aneurysm, accomplished via a microcatheter through the stent mesh. In two patients, wide-necked aneurysms (one partially thrombosed BA trunk aneurysm and one paraclinoid segment aneurysm) were treated solely by stent placement; coil placement may follow later if necessary. No permanent periprocedural complications occurred and, at follow-up examination, no patient was found to have suffered symptoms referable to aneurysm growth or thromboembolic complications. Greater than 90% aneurysm occlusion was achieved in the eight patients treated by stent and coil placement as demonstrated on immediate postprocedural angiograms. Follow-up angiographic studies performed in six patients at least 3 months later (range 3-14 months) revealed only one incident of in-stent stenosis. In the four patients originally treated solely by stent placement, no evidence of aneurysm thrombosis was observed either immediately postprocedure or on follow-up angiographic studies performed 24 hours (two patients), 48 hours, and 3 months later, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A new generation of flexible stents can be used to treat complex aneurysms in difficult-to-access areas such as the proximal intracranial segments of the ICA, the VA, or the BA trunk. The stent allows tight coil packing even in the presence of a wide-necked, irregularly shaped aneurysm and may provide an endoluminal matrix for endothelial growth. Although convincing experimental evidence suggests that stent placement across the aneurysm neck may by itself promote intraluminal thrombosis, the role of this phenomenon in clinical practice may be limited at present by the high porosity of currently available stents.
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18/348. Endosaccular aneurysm occlusion with Guglielmi detachable coils for obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a large basilar tip aneurysm. Case report.

    The authors present the case of a 60-year-old man with obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a large basilar artery tip aneurysm, in whom direct surgical clipping of the aneurysm neck was considered hazardous. After endosaccular aneurysm occlusion, his symptoms (headache, intellectual impairment, and gait disturbance) and ventricular dilation immediately improved without placement of a ventricular shunt. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of its kind treated solely endovascularly.
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19/348. Flow dynamics in a lethal anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    We describe and analyze the flow dynamics in replicas of a human anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The replicas were placed in a circuit of pulsating non-Newtonian fluid, and flows were adjusted to replicate human physiologic parameters. Individual slipstreams were opacified with isobaric dyes, and images were recorded on film and by CT/MR angiography. When flow in the afferent (internal carotid) and efferent (anterior and middle cerebral) arteries was bilaterally equal, slipstreams rarely entered the aneurysm. When flow in either the afferent or efferent vessels was not symmetrical, however, slipstreams entered the aneurysm neck, impinged upon the aneurysm dome, and swirled within the aneurysm. Unequal flow in carotid or cerebral systems may be necessary to direct pathologic, fluid slipstreams into an aneurysm.
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20/348. Internal carotid artery aneurysm repair requiring skull base resection: a case study.

    A 51-year-old man with a history of hypertension and smoking with an internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm was a referral from an outside hospital. He had a history remarkable for headaches for 6 months refractory to conventional therapy, but no stroke, transient ischemic attack, seizure activity, or neck pain. Arteriogram revealed a right ICA aneurysm at the level of the skull base with no accessible cervical ICA distal to the aneurysm. The petrous and intracranial ICA were normal. A team approach to repair was undertaken with a skull base resection and ICA exposure by head and neck surgeons and vascular reconstruction with vein graft from common carotid to petrous portion of ICA by vascular surgeons. A small right parietal infarction was noted in the postoperative period and became a focus of seizure activity. Anti-seizure medication was successful and transient upper-extremity weakness cleared. Transient dysfunction of cranial nerves VII and IX developed. The complex nature of the operation required expertise from different surgical specialties, and the postoperative complication mandated medical specialty and extensive inpatient and outpatient physical, occupational, and speech therapies ICA aneurysms of the skull base are uncommon. Historic treatment involved either ligation with a high risk of stroke or bypass to intracranial artery because direct repair was difficult. With a skilled team approach, direct repair as described is effective. This article focuses on the complexity of the surgical procedure, perioperative care, outcome of surgical intervention, and a multidisciplinary approach to the care of the patient undergoing ICA aneurysm repair requiring skull base resection.
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