Cases reported "Intracranial Aneurysm"

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1/363. Giant fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery: consideration of its pathogenesis.

    BACKGROUND: We tried to determine the pathogenesis of a fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery based on the findings of two patients who had pontine infarctions due to thrombosis within the aneurysm. CASE REPORT: The patients were female, aged 75 and 62 years. At autopsy of the first case, the dilated basilar artery was filled with fresh and old thrombus. The wall was extremely thin on the left side, where a fresh red thrombus was evident, and thick on the right side, where an old white thrombus appeared. The thick wall had a thickened and hyalinized intima, and a deposition of atheromatous plaque disrupted both the internal elastic lamina and muscle layer. The left vertebral artery was atherosclerotic and its lumen was severely compromised, but the right vertebral artery was hypoplastic. On angiogram of the second case, the dilated basilar artery presumably was filled with thrombus on the left side, contralateral to the dilated and tortuous vertebral artery. The left vertebral artery was hypoplastic. CONCLUSION: atherosclerosis may be the essential factor in the pathogenesis of a fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery in elderly patients. The disrupted internal elastic lamina and muscle layer may be susceptible to mechanical injury by hemodynamic strain, causing progressive attenuation of the arterial wall. Stenosis of the vertebral artery on the dominant side probably produces a jet stream within the basilar artery on the stenotic side and a stagnant zone on the opposite side, promoting the initial thrombus formation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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2/363. Radical surgery of a giant Galen's vein aneurysm using total circulatory arrest: case report.

    BACKGROUND: arteriovenous malformations of Galen's vein are a rare type of vascular anomaly. The complex anatomy of these lesions creates an extremely difficult management dilemma. We report successful surgical treatment of a 7-year-old patient with a Galen's vein aneurysm. methods AND RESULTS: A 7-year-old patient with slowly progressing gait disturbance, emotional instability, and strange behaviour is presented. A computed tomography scan revealed a high-density mass in the pineal region and cerebral angiography showed an aneurysm of Galen's vein. We decided to perform surgical excision of the aneurysm. The operation was performed under hypothermic circulatory arrest with barbiturate cerebral protection. The patient had no signs of postoperative ischemic deficits, hemorrhage, or neurologic deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Various techniques have been described for the obliteration of Galen's vein aneurysms, including direct surgical approach, staged operation, and transarterial, transvenous or transtorcular embolization. We present this patient to illustrate the use of hypothermic circulatory arrest and barbiturate cerebral protection for successful surgical excision of this complex vascular lesion. The combination of these techniques allowed us, in this case, to operate with reasonable safety on otherwise, difficult to treat aneurysm of Galen's vein.
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ranking = 0.30979676740063
keywords = vein
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3/363. Profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest with skull base approaches for treatment of complex posterior circulation aneurysms.

    OBJECTIVE: cardiopulmonary bypass with profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest has seen a resurgence as an adjunct technique in neurological surgery. We report our experience with this technique in treating seven complex vertebro-basilar aneurysms. methods: skull base approaches were used in all cases, providing excellent exposure and minimizing brain retraction. There were six basilar artery aneurysms and one giant fusiform vertebro-basilar artery aneurysm. All aneurysms but one had an apparent neck, which could be clipped. The fusiform vertebro-basilar artery aneurysm was trapped, partially resected, and the circulation was reestablished with a saphenous vein graft from the cervical internal carotid artery to the mid-basilar artery. RESULTS: Five patients had an excellent outcome and two had a good outcome at one year or at latest follow up. Two of the patients showed improvement of neurological deficits which were present before the surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Applying very strict selection criteria in this small series of patients with posterior circulation aneurysms, excellent or good results were achieved using the profound hypothermic circulatory arrest technique.
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ranking = 0.034421863044514
keywords = vein
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4/363. Twinkling artifact on intracerebral color Doppler sonography.

    Transcranial Doppler sonography shows potential as a noninvasive technique for long-term follow-up of treated intracranial saccular aneurysms. This technical note describes a color Doppler artifact related to microcoil architecture that might represent a potential pitfall in transcranial Doppler sonographic evaluation of aneurysmal cavity thrombosis, since it may be wrongly interpreted as residual flow or aneurysmal cavity recanalization.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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5/363. Nonaneurysmal thunderclap headache with diffuse, multifocal, segmental, and reversible vasospasm.

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the clinical profiles and angiographic findings of two patients with recurrent thunderclap headache (TCH) without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to present modified diagnostic criteria for this unusual syndrome. BACKGROUND: TCH may be a benign recurrent headache disorder or it may represent a serious underlying process such as SAH or venous sinus thrombosis. The pathophysiology of this disorder in the absence of underlying pathology is not well understood and its potential angiographic features are not well appreciated. methods: Two case descriptions with illustrative angiography. RESULTS: Both cases demonstrated the potential for reversible intracranial vasospasm without intracranial aneurysm or SAH and a benign clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Primary TCH has a distinctive clinical and angiographic profile and must be distinguished from central nervous system vasculitis and SAH.
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keywords = thrombosis
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6/363. Recanalization and rupture of a giant vertebral artery aneurysm after hunterian ligation: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Recanalization and subsequent rupture of giant aneurysms of the posterior circulation after Hunterian ligation is an extremely rare event that has been noted to occur with basilar apex, basilar trunk, and vertebrobasilar junction aneurysms. We report the case of a giant, previously unruptured right vertebral artery aneurysm, which recanalized from the contralateral vertebral artery and subsequently ruptured after previously performed angiography showed complete thrombosis of the aneurysm. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old woman presented with headaches, ataxia, and lower extremity weakness. A giant 3-cm right vertebral artery aneurysm was found during the patient evaluation. INTERVENTION: Because of the size of the aneurysm and the absence of a discrete neck, Hunterian ligation was performed. After treatment, angiograms showed no filling of the aneurysm from either the right or left vertebral artery. Nine days later, after the patient developed lethargy and nausea, repeat angiography showed that a small portion of the aneurysmal base had recanalized. The next day, the patient had a massive subarachnoid hemorrhage and subsequently died. CONCLUSION: We think that this is a previously undescribed complication associated with direct arterial ligation of giant vertebral artery aneurysms. patients with aneurysms treated using Hunterian ligation need to be followed up closely. Even aneurysms that have minimal recanalization are at risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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7/363. Long-term outcome of surgical treatment of intracavernous giant aneurysms.

    A number of approaches have been proposed for the treatment of intracavernous giant aneurysms. In the present study, we have analyzed long-term surgical outcome of 27 consecutive cases of our experience. All the cases were unruptured and symptomatic, showing symptoms such as extraocular movement disorder or visual disturbances. Thirteen cases were male and 14 cases were female. The age of the patients ranged between 11 and 75 years (average 52.2 years) and follow-up periods were between 1 and 20 years (average 7.7 years). abducens nerve was distributed in 20 cases, oculomotor nerve in 12 cases, optic nerve in six cases, trigeminal nerve in six cases, and trochlear nerve in five cases. In addition to conventional angiography, three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography, balloon test occlusion (BTO), slow injection angiography, aneurysmography, and single photon emission computed tomography with BTO were used to determine a method of treatment. Therapeutic modalities of the present series were as follows: four cases were unoperated, common carotid artery ligation was performed in eight cases, internal carotid artery (IC) ligation in three cases, IC ligation plus superficial temporal artery (STA)--middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis in four cases, IC ligation plus high flow vein bypass in three cases, IC trapping plus STA-MCA anastomosis in three cases, and direct clipping in two cases. Although two cases showed early and late ischemic complications, other cases demonstrated improvement of cranial nerve dysfunction relatively soon after surgical treatment and long-term outcome was generally good. It is concluded that good long-term surgical outcome is obtained for intracavernous giant aneurysms by selecting adequate surgical treatment based upon careful preoperative evaluation of these aneurysms using sophisticated diagnostic methods.
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ranking = 0.034421863044514
keywords = vein
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8/363. Acute deterioration from thrombosis and rerupture of a giant intracranial aneurysm.

    The authors describe a patient with an unusual clinicopathologic picture of giant aneurysmal hemorrhage followed by sudden deterioration due to acute intra-aneurysmal thrombosis and fatal rebleeding. This patient underscores the poor natural history associated with this devastating disease and serves to highlight the dangers inherent in the delayed treatment of these life-threatening lesions.
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ranking = 5
keywords = thrombosis
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9/363. arteriovenous fistula with associated aneurysms coexisting with dural arteriovenous malformation of the anterior inferior falx. Case report and review of the literature.

    This 24-year-old man presented with an unusual case of a high-flow arteriovenous fistula (AVF). This lesion was similar to giant AVFs in children that have been previously described in the literature. In patients in whom abnormalities of the vein of Galen have been excluded and in whom presentation occurs after 20 years of age, a diagnosis of congenital AVF is quite unusual. The fistula in this case originated in an enlarged callosomarginal artery and drained into the superior sagittal sinus via a saccular vascular abnormality. Two giant aneurysmal dilations of the fistula were present. In an associated finding, a small falcine dural arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was also present. Arterial supply to the AVM arose from both external carotid arteries and the left vertebral artery, with drainage through an aberrant vein in the region of the inferior sagittal sinus into the vein of Galen. craniotomy with exposure and trapping of the AVF was performed, with subsequent radiosurgical (linear accelerator) treatment of the dural AVM. Through this combination of microsurgical trapping of the AVF and radiotherapy of the dural AVM, an excellent clinical outcome was achieved.
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ranking = 0.10326558913354
keywords = vein
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10/363. Efficacy and current limitations of intravascular stents for intracranial internal carotid, vertebral, and basilar artery aneurysms.

    OBJECT: Results of previous in vitro and in vivo experimental studies have suggested that placement of a porous stent within the parent artery across the aneurysm neck may hemodynamically uncouple the aneurysm from the parent vessel, leading to thrombosis of the aneurysm. For complex wide-necked aneurysms, a stent may also aid packing of the aneurysm with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) by acting as a rigid scaffold that prevents coil herniation into the parent vessel. Recently, improved stent system delivery technology has allowed access to the tortuous vascular segments of the intracranial system. The authors report here on the use of intracranial stents to treat aneurysms involving different segments of the internal carotid artery (ICA), the vertebral artery (VA), and the basilar artery (BA). methods: Ten patients with intracranial aneurysms located at ICA segments (one petrous, two cavernous, and three paraclinoid aneurysms), the VA proximal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery origin (one aneurysm), or the BA trunk (three aneurysms) were treated since January 1998. In eight patients, stent placement across the aneurysm neck was followed (immediately in four patients and at a separate procedure in the remaining four) by coil placement in the aneurysm, accomplished via a microcatheter through the stent mesh. In two patients, wide-necked aneurysms (one partially thrombosed BA trunk aneurysm and one paraclinoid segment aneurysm) were treated solely by stent placement; coil placement may follow later if necessary. No permanent periprocedural complications occurred and, at follow-up examination, no patient was found to have suffered symptoms referable to aneurysm growth or thromboembolic complications. Greater than 90% aneurysm occlusion was achieved in the eight patients treated by stent and coil placement as demonstrated on immediate postprocedural angiograms. Follow-up angiographic studies performed in six patients at least 3 months later (range 3-14 months) revealed only one incident of in-stent stenosis. In the four patients originally treated solely by stent placement, no evidence of aneurysm thrombosis was observed either immediately postprocedure or on follow-up angiographic studies performed 24 hours (two patients), 48 hours, and 3 months later, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A new generation of flexible stents can be used to treat complex aneurysms in difficult-to-access areas such as the proximal intracranial segments of the ICA, the VA, or the BA trunk. The stent allows tight coil packing even in the presence of a wide-necked, irregularly shaped aneurysm and may provide an endoluminal matrix for endothelial growth. Although convincing experimental evidence suggests that stent placement across the aneurysm neck may by itself promote intraluminal thrombosis, the role of this phenomenon in clinical practice may be limited at present by the high porosity of currently available stents.
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ranking = 3
keywords = thrombosis
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