Filter by keywords:

Retrieving documents. Please wait...

1/136. Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger's disease). A vascular etiology of dementia.

    A 51-yearold man with moderate intermittent hypertension had a rapidly progressive, profound dementia in the absence of significant localizing neurological signs. Postmortem examination disclosed the vascular alterations and diffuse white matter degeneration which characterize subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) or Binswanger's disease. The case underscores the need to consider vascular disease as an etiology of dementia -- even in the absence of focal neurological deficit. ( info)

2/136. Cerebral angioplasty and stenting for intracranial vertebral atherosclerotic stenosis.

    A 72-year-old man underwent cerebral angioplasty and stenting for a high-grade eccentric atherosclerotic stenosis (93%) of the right intracranial vertebral artery. The lesion was sufficiently and smoothly dilated very easily with the use of a highly flexible, balloon-expandable coronary stent. No complications occurred during or after the procedure. This therapeutic option may prove to be a safe and useful means to resolve an intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. ( info)

3/136. Atherosclerotic superficial temporal artery aneurysm: report of a case.

    We herein report a rare case of an atherosclerotic superficial temporal artery (STA) aneurysm. The patient was a 34-year-old Japanese man. He noticed a throbbing swelling just in front of his right ear, which had slowly increased in size. There was no history of trauma. Digital subtraction angiography and ultrasound revealed an aneurysm measuring 2cm in diameter fed by STA. A ligation and resection were performed under local anesthesia. The recovery period was uneventful. A microscopic examination revealed a moderate degree of atherosclerosis. We found 48 cases of STA aneurysm in the Japanese literature from 1969 to 1997, including our case. Thirty-six of these cases (75.0%) were considered to be traumatic in origin. Three cases (6.2%) occurred after a craniotomy. To date, only nine reported cases (18.8%) have been attributed to a spontaneous or congenital etiology. ( info)

4/136. Ischaemic complication following obliteration of unruptured cerebral aneurysms with atherosclerotic or calcified neck.

    We report three cases of ischaemic complications following direct surgery of unruptured cerebral aneurysms having necks with atherosclerotic or calcified walls. Among 30 patients we treated directly for unruptured aneurysm over the last 4 years, 6 had 8 such aneurysms. Atherosclerotic or calcified neck was a major contributor to postoperative ischaemic sequelae in our recent series of unruptured aneurysms treated surgically, and common technical problems during surgery seemed to have caused ischaemic complications in the 3 patients reported here. In this report, attention is given to ischaemic complications in the treatment of such aneurysms. ( info)

5/136. Intracranial deployment of coronary stents for symptomatic atherosclerotic disease.

    Intracranial percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) has been used as a technique of last resort in the treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic disease when medical and surgical alternatives have failed or cannot be applied. The major risks associated with PTA include intracranial vessel rupture and abrupt vessel dissection causing occlusion. angioplasty techniques in the extracranial circulation have been improved by the development of safe stent technology in combination with potent antiplatelet agents. We report three successful cases of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease in middle-aged adults treated by endovascular PTA followed by deployment of coronary stents. ( info)

6/136. Stent-assisted angioplasty of intracranial vertebrobasilar atherosclerosis: an initial experience.

    OBJECT: patients with intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) atherosclerotic occlusive disease have few therapeutic options. Unfortunately, VBA transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) herald a lethal or devastating event within 5 years in 25 to 30% of patients. The authors report their initial experience with eight patients in whom medically refractory TIAs secondary to intracranial posterior circulation atherosclerotic occlusive lesions were treated with stent-assisted angioplasty. methods: Eight patients (six men), ranging in age from 43 to 77 years, experienced signs and symptoms of VBA insufficiency despite combination therapy with warfarin and antiplatelet agents. Angiographic studies revealed severe distal vertebral (four patients), proximal basilar (one patient), or proximal and midbasilar stenoses (three patients). aspirin and clopidogrel were administered for 3 days before primary angioplasty and stent placement, and this regimen was maintained by the patients on discharge. patients underwent heparinization during the procedure and were given a bolus and 12-hour infusion of abciximab. A neurologist specializing in stroke evaluated all patients before and after the procedure. The VBAs in all patients were successfully revascularized with 7 to 28% residual stenosis. Six patients experienced no neurological complications. One patient died the evening of the procedure due to a massive subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two patients had groin hematomas, one developed congestive heart failure, and one had transient encephalopathy. All surviving patients are asymptomatic up to 8 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Although primary intracranial VBA angioplasty with stent insertion is technically feasible, complications associated with the procedure can be life threatening. As experience is gained with this procedure, it may be offered routinely as an alternative therapy to patients with medically refractory posterior circulation occlusive disease that may develop into catastrophic VBA insufficiency. ( info)

7/136. Elective stenting of symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis.

    Percutaneous balloon angioplasty has been found to be useful for the treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic arterial stenosis. Nonetheless, an ongoing risk of this procedure is arterial dissection, which increases the hazards of acute closure, stroke, and restenosis. Stenting of the intracranial vasculature recently has been shown to be feasible in a variety of circumstances. To our knowledge, however, stenting of the middle cerebral artery has not been possible until now primarily because of difficulty with tracking stents across the carotid siphon. We describe the successful treatment of a symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis achieved using a balloon-expandable flexible coronary stent. ( info)

8/136. Complicated stent supported cerebrovascular angioplasty: case analyses and review of literature.

    BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic lesions of the cervicocerebral vasculature are currently being treated with stent supported percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. These procedures have met with increasing success when compared to the risks and morbidity of more invasive surgical approaches. The versatility of stent-supported angioplasty as a primary therapeutic modality is examined in the following complex cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present four cases involving cervical angioplasty with emergent or adjunctive stent placement. Two cases involved the subclavian arteries, whereas the others involved the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. In our experience, complications of cervicocerebral artery angioplasty have been successfully managed by stent placement. CONCLUSION: Our cases demonstrate the emerging role of cervical angioplasty and stent implantation as a successful therapeutic modality, highlighted in these complex cases. ( info)

9/136. pathology of a dissecting intracranial aneurysm.

    The pathological findings of six autopsy cases of dissecting intracranial aneurysm are studied. Clinically, all cases exhibited systemic hypertension or left ventricular hypertrophy. Macroscopically, all cases exhibited rupture of the vertebral artery and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two types of lesion were present. First, all cases showed the formation of a dilatated pseudoaneurysm with widespread disruption of the entire arterial wall, which was composed of thin adventitia. Second, a medial disruption of the arterial wall and subadventitial dissecting hemorrhage, which formed a false lumen and stenosis of the 'true' lumen of the artery, was also found. However, these lesions were found to be connected to the site of rupture. The autopsy cases within 1 day of onset of intracranial dissecting aneurysm showed the formation of fibrin thrombus, a marked degree of leukocyte infiltration and necrosis of the arterial wall at the site of the lesion. The cases that survived more than 1 week showed smooth muscle cell proliferation, macrophage accumulation and lymphocytic infiltration. No arteriosclerosis was found in any lesion studied. These data suggest that the disruption of the entire arterial wall might initially occur and cause medial disruption and subadventitial hemorrhage. hypertension and arteriosclerosis might function as causal and protective factors in the pathogenesis of dissecting intracranial aneurysms, respectively. ( info)

10/136. The organized subdural blood clot in forensic case work - a case report.

    The medico-legal assessment of a subdural haematoma (recent or organized) usually requires some information regarding its cause. Quite often, especially in the absence of a known history of trauma, minor head injuries, which are no longer verifiable, are simply assumed to be the most likely causes. Considering the fact that a subdural haematoma could also be non-traumatic, e.g. in haemorrhagic disorders, cardiac conditions with persistent passive hyperaemia, true inflammatory and degenerative processes of the dura, etc., the medico-legal implication of a possible head injury would require the exclusion of such non-traumatic conditions capable of causing subdural bleeding. In this respect, the case of a 92-year-old man, who suffered from cerebral sclerosis with occasional episodes of confusion and agitation, is briefly discussed. He was reported to have fallen from his bed, was hospitalized and died 2 days later. A head injury was suspected. At autopsy, no skull fractures and no obvious bruises were discovered. Fresh bilateral temporal subdural haematomas were found. These appeared consistent with a suspected head injury sustained as a result of a fall. Fairly large partly organized adherent subdural clots in the parieto-occipital region completely remote from and unconnected with the fresh bitemporal haematomas were also found. Based on the gross pathology and the histology, an attempt is made to assess the possible cause of the organized clots. Some of the findings indicated a possible non-traumatic origin, a consideration which is likely to affect the forensic implications. ( info)
| Next ->

Leave a message about 'Intracranial Arteriosclerosis'

We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.