Cases reported "Intracranial Embolism"

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1/173. Cerebral microembolus generation in different extracorporeal circulation systems.

    Microemboli generated during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) are likely to induce neurological sequelae. This study examines whether the choice of a distinct type of ECC can reduce intracerebral emboli counts. middle cerebral artery blood flow during coronary artery bypass grafting was monitored continuously by transcranial Doppler ultrasound in 45 patients. The ECC systems used were a roller pump (n = 16), a centrifugal pump (n = 18) and a combination of centrifugal pump and heparin-coated ECC system (n = 11). patients' characteristics as well as surgical and anesthesiological procedure did not differ between the groups. Total counts did not differ significantly between the three groups. Intraoperative events in individual patients may lead to massive embolus generation overcoming positive properties of a distinct ECC system.
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2/173. Monitoring of the extracranial and intracranial course of single emboli of cardiac origin: a preliminary report.

    Simultaneous monitoring of emboli in extracranial and intracranial arteries recorded with identical probes, in a patient with an artificial cardiac valve, allowed the identification and characterization of pairs of signals, which most likely represent single emboli flowing through the common carotid artery into the middle cerebral artery. This technique offers new insight into emboligenesis with obvious therapeutic implications.
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3/173. Abundance of microembolic signals detected by transcranial doppler ultrasound in a patient with Eisenmenger's syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Clinically silent circulating microemboli can be detected by transcranial Doppler sonography. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 45-year-old man with congenital cyanotic heart disease, elevated haematocrit, low platelet count and decreased protein c and protein s activity. Before and following several haemodilutions, we performed 5 1-hour transcranial Doppler recordings from one or both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) on different days. The number of microembolic signals per hour varied from 54 to 134. During the bilateral recording, the microemboli occurred on both sides (55 in the right and 45 in the left MCA, respectively). There was no relation to red blood cell count, platelet count, the spontaneously lowered prothrombin time or the spontaneously prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. CONCLUSIONS: The origin of the large number of microembolic signals found in this patient remains unclear, but may be presumed in the intra-abdominal or crural venous system.
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4/173. Biatrial myxoma resembling an interatrial clot in transit on echocardiogram.

    A 47-year-old man had an embolic stroke. Transesophageal echocardiography showed biatrial, elongated, mobile masses that appeared interconnected via a patent foramen ovale. echocardiography did not distinguish between an interatrial clot in transit and an atypical biatrial myxoma. Surgical resection and subsequent histopathologic examination identified the mass as a biatrial myxoma. This case identifies a limitation of echocardiography in the diagnosis of cardiac myxoma.
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keywords = foramen
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5/173. Papillary fibroelastoma of the mitral valve 12 years after mitral valve commissurotomy.

    A 63 year-old woman who had had mitral valve commissurotomy 12 years earlier was seen because of rheumatic mitral stenosis and left brachial paresis due to cerebral embolism. On clinical evaluation, a diastolic rumble was heard over the mitral area, and the echocardiogram revealed a mass attached to the mitral subvalvular apparatus. The patient was operated on, and both the surgical and histologic findings depicted papillary fibroelastoma. This tumor may occur as an isolated lesion or be associated with mitral valve stenosis or other cardiac abnormalities, and it is an important source of emboli. Early echocardiographic diagnosis, followed by surgical excision, may avoid serious complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden death.
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6/173. Transcranial doppler detection of fat emboli.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The fat embolism syndrome (FES) is characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of pulmonary and neurological symptoms as well as skin and mucosal petechiae in the setting of long-bone fractures or their surgical repair. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood, and effective treatments are lacking. We present 5 patients with long-bone fractures in whom in vivo microembolism was detected by transcranial Doppler. methods: Five patients with long-bone fractures were monitored with transcranial Doppler for microembolic signals (MESs) after trauma. Two patients also had intraoperative monitoring. A TC-2020 instrument equipped with MES detection software was used. Detected signals were saved for subsequent review. Selected signals satisfied criteria defined previously and were categorized as large or small. RESULTS: Cerebral microembolism was detected in all 5 patients and was transient, resolving within 4 days of injury. Intraoperative monitoring revealed an increase in MESs during intramedullary nail insertion. The characteristics of MESs after injury varied among patients, with large signals being more frequent in the only patient with a patent foramen ovale. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral microembolism after long-bone fractures can be detected in vivo and monitored over time. These findings may have potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
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keywords = foramen
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7/173. Cutaneous manifestation of left atrial myxoma.

    A 53-year-old woman had a left hemiplegia with suspicion of cerebral metastases. Thoracic and abdominal computed tomography revealed renal and splenic infarction features and she presented violaceous papulosis on her fingers corresponding to thrombosis of dermal vessels. echocardiography showed a left atrial tumor evoking myxoma. The clinical features of left atrial myxomas are intracardiac obstruction, extracardiac embolism and general symptoms. Cutaneous manifestations are frequently reported and can correspond to cutaneous manifestations of emboli, symptoms related to auto-immune disorders and specific cutaneous findings that suggest atrial myxoma as part of more complex syndromes.
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8/173. Fatal air embolism as a complication of CT-guided needle biopsy of the lung.

    A CT-guided needle lung biopsy carries a risk of potential air embolization. We present a rare case of air embolization after this procedure. Postmortem CT revealed air in the cerebral arteries and the left ventricle. This complication is extremely rare; however, it becomes fatal when it happens. Several points to prevent this fatal complication are discussed.
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keywords = cerebral, ventricle
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9/173. Cerebral arterial air embolism treated by a vertical head-down maneuver.

    A case of cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE) occurring from inadvertent injection of air during aortic root angiography is presented. Prompt treatment by suspending the patient briefly in a vertical head-down position beside the catheterization table appeared to be life-saving and resulted in complete neurological recovery. This approach may offer the first immediate therapy for CAAE. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 49:185-187, 2000.
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10/173. Intracranial clot dissolution is associated with embolic signals on transcranial Doppler.

    reperfusion of intracranial arteries can be detected by transcranial Doppler (TCD). The authors report microembolic signals (MES) on TCD as a sign of clot dissolution and recanalization. Microembolic signals were detected during routine diagnostic TCD examination performed in the emergency room in patients eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Microembolic signals were found at the site of M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) high-grade stenosis or near-occlusion. Transcranial Doppler was performed before, during, and after thrombolytic therapy. Of 16 consecutive patients, 3 (19%) had MES on TCD. All three patients had a severe MCA syndrome at 2 hours after stroke onset scored using the National Institutes of health stroke Scale (NIHSS). In patient #1 (NIHSS 12), clusters of MES were detected distal to a high-grade M1 MCA stenosis preceding spontaneous clinical recovery by 2 minutes. Because of subsequent fluctuating clinical deficit, intraarterial thrombolysis was given with complete recovery. In patient #2 (NIHSS 20), TCD detected an M1 MCA near-occlusion. At 1.5 hours after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, TCD showed minimal MCA flow signals followed by MES, increased velocities, and normal flow signals in just 2 minutes. She gradually recovered up to NIHSS 8 in 5 days. In patient #3 with NIHSS 22 and an M1 MCA near-occlusion, TCD detected MES 15 minutes after TPA bolus followed by MCA flow velocity improvement from 15 cm/sec to 30 cm/sec. The patient recovered completely by the end of tissue plasminogen activator infusion. The authors conclude that embolic signals detected by TCD at the site of arterial obstruction can indicate clot dissolution. Intracranial recanalization on TCD can be associated with MES and changes in flow waveform, pulsatility, and velocity if insonation is performed at the site of arterial obstruction.
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