Cases reported "Intracranial Embolism"

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1/36. Cutaneous manifestation of left atrial myxoma.

    A 53-year-old woman had a left hemiplegia with suspicion of cerebral metastases. Thoracic and abdominal computed tomography revealed renal and splenic infarction features and she presented violaceous papulosis on her fingers corresponding to thrombosis of dermal vessels. echocardiography showed a left atrial tumor evoking myxoma. The clinical features of left atrial myxomas are intracardiac obstruction, extracardiac embolism and general symptoms. Cutaneous manifestations are frequently reported and can correspond to cutaneous manifestations of emboli, symptoms related to auto-immune disorders and specific cutaneous findings that suggest atrial myxoma as part of more complex syndromes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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2/36. Transcatheter snare removal of acute middle cerebral artery thromboembolism: technical case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We describe the case of a patient in whom a snare designed for the removal of foreign bodies was successfully used to retrieve a thromboembolism from the middle cerebral artery. This technique can be used to reestablish blood flow when maximal pharmacological therapies have failed. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old man with scrotal squamous cell carcinoma presented with the abrupt onset of left hemiparesis and numbness. Computed tomography of the head showed no hemorrhage or hypodensity, and right middle cerebral artery thrombosis was suspected. INTERVENTION: cerebral angiography demonstrated a near-total occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery at the M1-M2 junction. The administration of intra-arterial urokinase, systemic heparin, and systemic abciximab, and mechanical maceration failed to lyse the clot. A 4-mm goose-neck snare was guided through a microcatheter, and the clot was snared and withdrawn. Immediate postoperative angiography demonstrated the reconstitution of normal flow. Pathological examination of the snared material was consistent with clot. By postoperative Day 5, the patient had regained full strength, except for the fingers of the left hand, which remained moderately weak. Computed tomography demonstrated a right insular and extreme capsular infarct. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of a snare to remove clot in the setting of thromboembolic stroke. As the use of intra-arterial thrombolysis increases, transcatheter snare removal of pharmacologically resistant clot may be considered as a salvage strategy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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3/36. neurologic manifestations of cerebral air embolism as a complication of central venous catheterization.

    OBJECTIVE, patients, AND methods: A severe case of cerebral air embolism after unintentional central venous catheter disconnection was the impetus for a systematic literature review (1975-1998) of the clinical features of 26 patients (including our patient) with cerebral air embolism resulting from central venous catheter complications. RESULTS: The jugular vein had been punctured in eight patients and the subclavian vein, in 12 patients. Embolism occurred in four patients during insertion, in 14 patients during unintentional disconnection, and in eight patients after removal and other procedures. The total mortality rate was 23%. Two types of neurologic manifestations may be distinguished: group A (n = 14) presented with encephalopathic features leading to a high mortality rate (36%); and group B (n = 12) presented with focal cerebral lesions resulting in hemiparesis or hemianopia affecting mostly the right hemisphere, with a mortality rate as high as 8%. In 75% of patients, an early computed tomography indicated air bubbles, proving cerebral air embolism. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was performed in only three patients (12%). A cardiac defect, such as a patent foramen ovale was considered the route of right to left shunting in 6 of 15 patients (40%). More often, a pulmonary shunt was assumed (9 of 15 patients; 60%). For the remainder, data were not available. CONCLUSION: When caring for critically ill patients needing central venous catheterization, nursing staff and physicians should be aware of this potentially lethal complication.
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ranking = 0.037126273535455
keywords = vein
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4/36. heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case report.

    The authors present a case of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT) that occurred after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and they review the relevant literature. An immune-mediated syndrome, HITT is characterized by moderate thrombocytopenia and paradoxical vascular thromboses. Although it has been estimated in prospective studies that HITT occurs in between 1 and 3% of patients receiving heparin, it is underrecognized in the neurosurgical literature. In the present case, a 49-year-old woman underwent clipping of a right posterior communicating artery aneurysm after suffering a Hunt and Hess Grade III SAH. She had an uncomplicated postoperative course with good clip positioning and no vasospasm observed on a cerebral angiogram obtained on Day 7. On Day 23, the patient developed a right hemiparesis and experienced a grand mal seizure. A head computerized tomography scan revealed a hemorrhagic infarct in the left middle cerebral artery distribution. Repeated cerebral angiograms did not show vasospasm. She was thrombocytopenic (platelet count as low as 46 x 10(9)/L on Day 28 compared with 213 x 10(9)/L on Day 1) and had been receiving heparin flushes to maintain intravenous catheter patency. An assay for HITT-associated antibodies was positive. The heparin flushes were discontinued and the platelet count recovered (121 x 10(9)/L). She improved neurologically, but was left with a significant right hemiparesis at discharge. This patient had assay-proven heparin-induced thrombocytopenia despite minimal exposure to heparin. Because there was no evidence of vasospasm or other factors to account for her delayed hemorrhagic infarction, an HITT-related disorder seemed most likely. Despite a large body of literature describing HITT in nonneurosurgical patients, only three previous neurosurgical cases have been published. This case report may serve to heighten awareness of this disorder.
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ranking = 5
keywords = thrombosis
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5/36. Retrocardiac arteriovenous malformation causing recurrent cerebral ischemia.

    A 28-year-old woman had been suffering from recurrent cerebral embolizations for almost 9 years. A retrocardiac arteriovenous malformation was identified as the source of emboli. It was supplied by chest wall veins and the right upper pulmonary vein, connected to the back wall of the left atrium and a possibly aberrant hepatic vein originating from the abdomen. The aneurysm was resected and all supplying veins ligated. The vein from below the diaphragm was implanted into the right atrium. Her postoperative course was uncomplicated. Long-term follow-up free from cerebrovascular events.
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ranking = 0.092815683838638
keywords = vein
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6/36. superior sagittal sinus and cerebral cortical venous thrombosis caused by congenital protein c deficiency--case report.

    A 47-year-old male receiving anticoagulant therapy for thrombophlebitis in the left leg for several years presented with mild left hemiparesis and ipsilateral hypesthesia. The cause of the thrombophlebitis was still unknown. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed subacute thrombosis of both the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and a cortical vein in the right cerebral hemisphere. Fluid attenuation inversion recovery axial MR imaging demonstrated these lesions more obviously than conventional T2-weighted axial MR imaging. Right carotid angiography showed a partial SSS filling defect and occlusion of the cortical vein with collateral circulation. Coagulation studies revealed decreases in both protein C activity and antigen levels with normal levels of blood coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X and protein s activity and antigen. The patient's mother had normal levels of both protein C activity and antigen, but his father had decreased levels. The diagnosis was SSS and cerebral cortical venous thrombosis caused by congenital protein c deficiency. The patient was treated conservatively, and his clinical course was uneventful. His neurological dysfunctions recovered within approximately 3 weeks after the onset. Ten months later, right carotid angiography showed recanalization of the SSS and partial filling of the cortical vein. Anticoagulant therapy has been continued, and no cerebral venous thrombosis has recurred during the 1.5 years after the onset.
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ranking = 8.2782063649783
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, vein
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7/36. Loco-regional thrombolysis in the treatment of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis: report of two cases.

    Although intravenous (i.v.) heparin is widely used as the first line treatment for cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST), the most appropriate therapy for this disease is still controversial. We report 2 cases of CVST who were successfully treated by means of loco-regional thrombolysis with urokinase. In the first case we chose this treatment instead of i.v. heparin because clinical conditions of the patient appeared critical for life on hospital admission; in the second case loco-regional thrombolysis was performed because a full-dose heparin treatment over 8 days failed to improve the clinical picture of the patient. In the literature, there are no established criteria for the use of loco-regional thrombolysis in CVST. On the basis of our own experience and few previous reports on the matter, we suggest that loco-regional thrombolysis should be considered an appropriate treatment for CVST when patients are at life risk, when an involvement of deep cerebral veins is present or when, after full heparinization, patients are doing poorly clinically.
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ranking = 5.0226666347843
keywords = thrombosis, vein, deep
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8/36. basilar artery thrombosis in a child heterozygous for factor v Leiden mutation.

    activated protein c resistance, usually because of factor v Leiden mutation, is considered to be the most common hereditary prothrombotic condition. A 9-year-old male with a basilar artery stroke and activated protein c resistance is described. The patient, found to be heterozygous for factor v Leiden mutation, is one of several recent reports that suggest that activated protein c resistance is an important risk factor for spontaneous arterial thrombosis in infancy and childhood.
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ranking = 5
keywords = thrombosis
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9/36. Paradoxical cerebral air embolism after removal of a central venous catheter: case report.

    Paradoxical cerebral air embolization through a residual tract after the removal of a central venous catheter is a serious complication of central venous cannulation. air embolisms resulting from residual catheter tracts in general patients and in single lung transplant patients have been reported. The generally accepted mechanism of this complication is failure of a spontaneous collapse or thrombotic obliteration of a well-formed catheter tract. It may be related to the duration of catheter insertion, the patient's nutritional status, the diameter of the indwelling catheter, the upright position of the patient, deep inspiration or coughing, and improper wound dressing and catheter removal. Cardiovascular collapse, pulmonary or neurologic sequelae, and even death, are commonly noted in patients with air embolism. In this article, we report on cerebral air embolization as a complication with the removal with a central venous catheter in a patient with bullous emphysema. A high degree of suspicion and a prompt diagnosis are required for successful application of established therapy. Simple prophylactic procedures and constant awareness of the unusual mechanism of air embolism remain the best treatment.
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ranking = 0.0041034980165549
keywords = deep
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10/36. Vascular tumors simulating occlusive disease.

    Two cases of vascular tumors of large vessels with intraluminal growth simulating venous thrombosis and arterial occlusive disease are reported. One was a borderline malignant epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the femoral vein and the other a malignant epithelioid angiosarcoma of the carotid artery. Immunohistochemical studies permitted to classify the tumors. Treatment consisted in surgical resection. No recurrence and no metastasis are noted at 24 months. uncertainty regarding biological behaviour of vascular tumors and treatment persists.
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ranking = 1.2223159625469
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, vein
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