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1/15. Post-traumatic basilar artery thrombosis in a young man with atrial septum aneurysm and prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphism.

    prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphism has been recently identified as a cause of venous thrombosis. However the association between this mutation and arterial thrombosis remains uncertain. Some authors have suggested that the polymorphism in the 3' region of the prothrombin gene may precipitate cerebral arterial thrombosis in young patients with prothrombotic conditions. We report a case of post-traumatic basilar artery thrombosis in a young patient carrier of the prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphism. Thirty-six hours after sustaining a head injury in the occipital region, a young man developed vomiting, headache, dizziness and truncal ataxia, without signs of focal impairment. magnetic resonance imaging and selective angiography carried out 2 days later showed an obstruction of the basilar artery, with infarction of the right cerebellar region. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed a patent foramen ovale with little left-to-right shunt and an aneurysm of the interatrial septum. blood examination showed a heterozygous status for prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphism. We conclude that this prothrombin gene mutation and the coexisting particular head injury and interatrial septal aneurysm could have contributed simultaneously to the development of basilar artery occlusion and cerebellar infarction. We suggest that in selected cases of cerebellar ischemia a prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphism should be considered.
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keywords = ataxia
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2/15. Childhood stroke after minor neck trauma: case report.

    cerebral infarction after minor trauma to the neck has rarely been reported. A case is presented of a child with trauma to the vertebrobasilar artery resulting in stroke. Computerized tomography scan and angiography results are presented. Despite two subsequent, separate transient episodes of vertigo, the child had good functional recovery with complete restoration of language and cognitive function. After 28 months, residual impairments identified were a mild right-sided ataxia and hemiparesis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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3/15. The lateral medullary syndrome.

    The lateral medullary syndrome is a rare syndrome resulting from a cerebrovascular accident involving part of the medulla oblongata with consequent loss of pain and temperature sensation in the orofacial region, loss of taste, and palatal palsy and loss of gag reflex, together with Horner's syndrome and ataxia. A case is presented and the literature reviewed.
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keywords = ataxia
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4/15. Cerebral air embolism after transthoracic aspiration with a 0.6 mm (23 gauge) needle.

    A 54 yr old man experienced weakness in his legs, ataxia and subsequent urinary retention after a percutaneous fine-needle aspiration of a tumor in the right lower lobe. Clinical neurological examination and electroencephalography revealed signs of a brain stem lesion, probably due to an air embolism to the basilar artery. The symptoms and signs gradually disappeared prior to, as well as after, hyperbaric oxygen treatment. We believe this to be the first case of air embolism after transthoracic puncture with a 23 gauge needle to be reported in medical literature.
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keywords = ataxia
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5/15. Nonvisual eye position control in a patient with ocular lateropulsion.

    For elucidating the nonvisual eye position control system, we studied the accuracy of saccades toward the remembered position (memory-guided saccades) in a patient with ocular lateropulsion having tonic bias of the eye position. Although the saccadic dysmetria caused by ocular lateropulsion was recorded during memory-guided saccades in the same manner as visually guided saccades, the eyes reached precisely the intended position by corrective saccades. The mean latency of corrective saccades was significantly longer than that of corrective saccades observed for visually guided saccades. This long latency of corrective saccades supports the assumption that feedback information of the eye position is a signal generated by orbital afferents rather than a copy of the motor command.
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ranking = 690.375625
keywords = dysmetria
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6/15. Cerebellar infarction in the superior cerebellar artery distribution.

    Three patients with CT and angiographic documentation of cerebellar infarction in the superior cerebellar artery distribution had ataxic gait with little or no vertigo. Limb ataxia occurred in two patients. Transient chorea and signs of pontine infarction were also noted. CT demonstrated infarcts on the upper surface of a cerebellar hemisphere and/or vermis. Angiograms disclosed occlusion of the top of the basilar artery in two cases and distal superior cerebellar artery (SCA) branches in one. One patient later died after distal basilar artery occlusion; the others recovered.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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7/15. ataxia-telangiectasia with a 32 year survival. A clinicopathological report.

    The clinicalpathological findings in a 32-year old woman with ataxia-telangiectasia are presented. This is the oldest patient with this disease to be studied thoroughly clinically and at autopsy. Multiple small gliovascular malformations in the brain and spinal cord and telangiectasis of the liver were found. Other advanced lesions of ataxia-telangiectasia are illustrated. The vascular malformations of the central nervous system and liver are unique. The patient died of a malignant lymphoproliferative disorder and had five other malignant and benign neoplasms.
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ranking = 2
keywords = ataxia
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8/15. Ataxic hemiparesis. A pathologic study.

    Three stroke patients showed weakness and pyramidal signs on one side combined with a cerebellar-like ataxia on the same side. Pathologic study in each case showed an old infarct cavity in the basis pontis at the level of the junction of the upper one third and lower two thirds on the side opposite the neurologic deficit. The basilar artery was patent and the infarcts were probably the result of occlusion of penetrating arteries. This study demonstrates that a lesion of the basis pontis may be associated with a contralateral ataxia that is cerebellar in character. The designation ataxic hemiparesis is suggested for the syndrome.
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ranking = 2
keywords = ataxia
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9/15. Vertical ocular dysmetria--vertical rebound nystagmus and optokinetic vertical ocular dysmetria.

    Ocular dysmetria in vertical eye movement was confirmed by electronystagmographic recording in 100 cases. Ocular dysmetria in spontaneous vertical ocular movement was reported in seven cases. It can be called vertical rebound nystagmus. This phenomenon was more prominent in vertical movement of the eyes returning from upward gazing to mid-position than in the movements of downward gazing. Optokinetic vertical ocular dysmetria induced by vertical optokinetic stimulation was observed in 93 cases. This phenomenon was far more prominent in upward optokinetic nystagmus than in downward optokinetic nystagmus. The pattern of optokinetic vertical ocular dysmetria was classified into the following four types: the dysrhythmic type, the overshoot type, the ataxic type and the saccadic (semi-inversive) type. The pathophysiological mechanism of horizontal ocular dysmetria should be different from the mechanism of vertical ocular dysmetria.
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ranking = 9665.25875
keywords = dysmetria
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10/15. Vertebro-basilar arterial occlusion in childhood--report of a case and review of the literature.

    A 9-year-old boy developed ataxia, right transient hemiparesis, left transient hemichorea, dysarthria and swallowing difficulties with left velar paralysis following two transient episodes of vomiting, headache and dizziness. angiography demonstrated an occlusion of the distal part of the basilar artery. Thirty-six previously reported cases of vertebro-basilar arterial occlusion in children were reviewed, with particular regard to possible etiologies.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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