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1/318. Monitoring of venous hemodynamics in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis by transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

    OBJECTIVES: To test the assumption that transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) is able to detect and to monitor intracranial venous blood flow velocities in patients with confirmed cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). DESIGN: Prospective case study in 18 patients. SETTING: Inpatient neurologic service in a university hospital. SUBJECTS AND methods: Serial TCD examinations were performed in 18 consecutive patients with CVT (14 females, 4 males) aged 16 to 64 years (mean /-SD, 36.8 /-13.1 years) during a mean follow-up ranging from 34 to 783 days (mean /-SD, 201 /-185 days) between 1993 and 1997. Venous TCD was performed with a 2-MHz range-gated transducer. RESULTS: Venous blood flow velocities were successfully measured in all patients. The highest measured velocities in the monitored intracranial venous vessels ranged from 20 to 150 cm/s (mean /-SD, 58.9 /-38.8 cm/s), and the lowest were from 9 to 84 cm/s (mean /-SD, 27.9 /-17.0 cm/s). Fifteen patients (83%) showed a decrease of velocities-2 of them after a transient increase during cessation of heparin therapy. The percentage of velocity decrease ranged from 34% to 73% (mean /-SD, 56.4% /-10.9%). A plateau phase, defined as no further decrease in velocities, was reached in these patients within 4 to 314 days (mean /-SD, 59.9 /-73.7 days). Three patients (17%) showed no changes in velocities as defined by a limit of velocity variation of 30% during the course of CVT. High venous velocities were significantly associated with altered consciousness (P = .001). A nonsignificant relationship was observed with affliction of the superior sagittal sinus. No correlations were noted for onset of disease, initial motor deficits, and presence of bleeding. No predictive value was gained from analyzing the outcome in relation to absolute velocities or their decrease. CONCLUSIONS: Serial TCD studies allow monitoring of venous hemodynamics and collateral pathways in patients with CVT. Normal venous velocities in serial measurements, however, do not exclude a diagnosis of CVT.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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2/318. Near-infrared spectroscopy monitored cerebral venous thrombolysis.

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous thrombosis is a clinical entity which is readily diagnosed with the advent of modern imaging techniques. Anticoagulation is now a standard therapy, but more recent treatment strategies have included endovascular thrombolysis. While the endpoint of this intervention both clinically and radiographically has not been defined, noninvasive monitoring techniques may add further objective measures of treatment response. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We present a patient with a four day history of worsening headache and papilledema on exam. Superior sagittal, straight, and bilateral transverse sinus thromboses were identified on computed tomography and angiography. INTERVENTION: Emergent endovascular thrombolysis by a transvenous approach re-established venous patency and resulted in immediate resolution of the patient's symptoms. Cerebral oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy was utilized during the procedure, and changes in chromophore concentrations correlated directly with angiographic and clinical resolution of the thrombosis. CONCLUSION: Near-infrared spectroscopy can provide continuous feedback during thrombolytic therapy in cerebral venous thrombosis and may help define endpoints of such intervention.
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ranking = 0.59001951965724
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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3/318. Endovascular stenting of an acutely thrombosed basilar artery: technical case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: The goal of this report was to describe the successful percutaneous endovascular use of a Gianturco-Roubin-2 coronary stent in the treatment of an acute atherothrombotic occlusion of the basilar artery. To our knowledge, the percutaneous endovascular deployment of an intra-arterial stent for the treatment of an acute atherothrombotic occlusion of the basilar artery and the percutaneous endovascular placement of a Gianturco-Roubin-2 stent in the basilar artery have not been previously reported. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old man presented with a recurrent, transient, locked-in syndrome resulting from a lower basilar artery occlusion caused by vertebrobasilar thrombosis superimposed on severe proximal basilar artery atheromatous stenosis. INTERVENTION: After successful superselective intra-arterial thrombolysis of the vertebrobasilar clot, balloon angioplasty of the underlying basilar artery stenosis was performed, without significant angiographic improvement. Percutaneous endovascular deployment of a Gianturco-Roubin-2 coronary stent of 4-mm diameter was subsequently performed, with excellent angiographic results. CONCLUSION: The patient made a very good neurological recovery but unfortunately died as a result of cardiogenic shock and sepsis. Detailed neuropathological follow-up results are presented; stent patency was revealed in the postmortem examination. The anatomic and pathophysiological considerations of basilar artery stent placement for the treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion related to atherosclerotic stenosis are discussed.
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ranking = 0.19001951965724
keywords = thrombosis
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4/318. Fatal haemorrhagic infarct in an infant with homocystinuria.

    Thrombotic and thromboembolic complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with homocystinuria. However, it is unusual for thrombosis and infarction to be the presenting feature leading to investigation for homocystinuria and cerebrovascular lesions in the first year of life. We describe a previously healthy 6-month-old infant who presented with a large middle-cerebral-artery territory infarction and died of massive brain swelling. homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency was diagnosed by metabolite analysis and confirmed by enzymatic activity measurement in a postmortem liver biopsy. homocystinuria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of venous or arterial thrombosis, regardless of age, even in the absence of other common features of the disease. We recommend systematic metabolic screening for hyperhomocysteinemia in any child presenting with vascular lesions or premature thromboembolism.
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ranking = 0.38003903931448
keywords = thrombosis
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5/318. Resistance to activated protein c as an etiology for stroke in a young adult: a case report.

    Resistance to activated protein c (R-APC) is an inherited, autosomal dominant, coagulation abnormality that is increasingly recognized as an important etiology for thromboembolic disease and stroke in young adults. This report describes the case of a 27-year-old woman taking oral contraceptives who experienced an acute thrombotic right hemispheric stroke. Three days after rehabilitation admission (33 days after stroke) she developed a left femoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) despite appropriate prophylaxis. Further diagnostic workup for the stroke and DVT identified R-APC, possibly exacerbated by oral contraceptives, as the etiology. hematology consultation recommended lifetime anticoagulation with warfarin. The patient's family history revealed that a 19-year-old cousin had died of a stroke several years earlier. Several months after discharge, an acute DVT occurred in the patient's 28-year-old brother, who tested positive for factor v Leiden, a genetic abnormality closely associated with R-APC. A thrombotic stroke occurred in her grandfather a few months later, but he was not tested. Her father demonstrated a "borderline" positive R-APC test and probably represents the genetic link. Indications for patient and family screening regarding R-APC and other forms of hereditary thrombophilia and implications for rehabilitation medicine physicians are discussed.
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ranking = 0.20001230336804
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, deep
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6/318. Twinkling artifact on intracerebral color Doppler sonography.

    Transcranial Doppler sonography shows potential as a noninvasive technique for long-term follow-up of treated intracranial saccular aneurysms. This technical note describes a color Doppler artifact related to microcoil architecture that might represent a potential pitfall in transcranial Doppler sonographic evaluation of aneurysmal cavity thrombosis, since it may be wrongly interpreted as residual flow or aneurysmal cavity recanalization.
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ranking = 0.19001951965724
keywords = thrombosis
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7/318. Cerebellar infarct caused by spontaneous thrombosis of a developmental venous anomaly of the posterior fossa.

    Spontaneous thrombosis of a posterior fossa developmental venous anomaly (DVA) caused a nonhemorrhagic cerebellar infarct in a 31-year-old man who also harbored a midbrain cavernous angioma. DVA thrombosis was well depicted on CT and MR studies and was proved at angiography by the demonstration of an endoluminal clot.
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ranking = 1.1401171179434
keywords = thrombosis
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8/318. diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in deep cerebral venous thrombosis.

    BACKGROUND: diffusion-weighted (DWI) and perfusion-weighted (PI) MRI are highly sensitive techniques for early diagnosis of arterial infarction, but little data on venous cerebral ischemia are available. We describe a case in which DWI, PI, and fast T2-weighted sequences were performed in the acute phase of deep cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). CASE DESCRIPTION: An 11-year-old girl with Crohn's disease developed deep CVT in which extensive edema was shown in the deep gray matter on T2-weighted sequence images. Isotropic echo-planar DWI demonstrated a local augmentation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (1.1 to 1.6x10(-3) mm2/s), consistent with vasogenic edema. In dynamic contrast-enhanced PI, the regional cerebral blood volume was increased and the passage time of the contrast bolus was markedly prolonged. Clinically, the patient recovered totally after intravenous full-dose heparinization. T2 abnormalities, apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.8 to 0.92x10(-3) mm2/s), and brain perfusion alterations resolved without damage to brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike arterial infarction, DWI demonstrated vasogenic edema in a patient with deep CVT, which proved to be reversible in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. PI showed areas with extensive venous congestion, but perfusion deficits were missing. Therefore, we believe that DWI and PI may play a role in detecting venous congestion in CVT and in prospective differentiation of vasogenic edema and venous infarction.
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ranking = 1.0000984269443
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, deep
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9/318. Acute deterioration from thrombosis and rerupture of a giant intracranial aneurysm.

    The authors describe a patient with an unusual clinicopathologic picture of giant aneurysmal hemorrhage followed by sudden deterioration due to acute intra-aneurysmal thrombosis and fatal rebleeding. This patient underscores the poor natural history associated with this devastating disease and serves to highlight the dangers inherent in the delayed treatment of these life-threatening lesions.
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ranking = 0.9500975982862
keywords = thrombosis
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10/318. headache: cortical vein thrombosis and response to anticoagulation.

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is being diagnosed more frequently with the use of advanced radiologic imaging. The presentation of CVT includes a wide spectrum of nonspecific symptoms with headache predominating. We present a case with acute, severe headache. The evaluation included a head computed tomography (CT) scan that was normal. The presence of opacified sinuses led to treatment for sinusitis. The patient returned the following day with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study identified an isolated cortical venous thrombosis. This patient was treated with anticonvulsant and anticoagulation therapy. A CVT is an unusual cause of headache and should be considered in patients with atypical presentation or associated seizure, or who are refractory to current therapy. Diagnosis may be made with MRI. Resolution and complete recovery are possible with appropriate therapy.
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ranking = 1.1612811871196
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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