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1/4. The role of hypertension in bromocriptine-related puerperal intracranial hemorrhage.

    The spate of medicolegal inquiries following the disqualification of Parlodel (bromocriptine mesylate) by the food and Drug Administration for postpartum ablactation, uncovered previously unreported side effects associated with its postpartum administration. In 1994, bromocriptine mesylate was withdrawn from the market as a milk suppressant. Since this time, over a dozen cases of postpartum intracranial hemorrhages associated with its use have been reported. We describe three additional cases of postpartum intracranial hemorrhage related to bromocriptine usage. One patient, previously normotensive, developed hypertension and a headache; initial CT was normal, but CT 24 h later demonstrated intracranial hemorrhage. This suggests that the blood-pressure elevation was drug-induced and was the cause, rather than the consequence, of bromocriptine-related intracranial hemorrhage.
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2/4. Simultaneous occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured aneurysm and remote hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage: case report.

    Simultaneous occurrence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is very rare and only two cases have been previously reported in the literatures. We present a case of 68-yr-old man with a history of untreated hypertension, who suffered from sudden onset of headache followed by right hemiparesis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed SAH in the basal cistern and remote ICH at the left putamen. cerebral angiography showed a saccular aneurysm at the anterior communicating artery. No other vascular anomaly could be found at left putaminal area. Nine days after the ictal attack of SAH, the neck of aneurysm was clipped via the left frontotemporal craniotomy. Because of the ICH at the left frontal lobe and intraventricular hematoma on postoperative CT, we performed hematoma removal and external ventricular drainage 3 hours after the first operation. Postoperative neurological status had been improved to be drowsy and he was discharged in a severely disabled state 4 weeks after surgery. We suggest that the rupture of aneurysm possibly caused a rapid increase in blood pressure and subsequently resulted in hypertensive ICH.
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3/4. Evaluation of a distal pericallosal aneurysm visualized with 3-dimensional digital subtraction angiography: case report and treatment implications.

    BACKGROUND: Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is considered the gold standard in the evaluation of cerebrovascular structures. Recently, 3-dimensional DSA (3D-DSA) has been increasingly used to obtain detailed information about the morphology and dimensions of intracranial aneurysms. We report the case of a patient who presented with a distal pericallosal artery aneurysm, which appeared by 2D imaging to be a fusiform, possible mycotic aneurysm. This was then revealed to be a saccular bifurcation aneurysm by 3D-DSA. This additional information changed the treatment plan for this patient from medical management to a surgical approach. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient is a 56-year-old man with a history of hypertension and alcohol abuse with withdrawal seizures, who presented with a large intracranial hemorrhage on initial computed tomography scan. After stabilization with intracranial pressure management, the patient underwent magnetic resonance angiography and 4-vessel DSA. These initial studies showed a distal, fusiform pericallosal aneurysm consistent with a mycotic aneurysm. Rotational DSA was then used to generate 3D images of the structure that revealed a saccular bifurcation aneurysm. This enabled the decision to offer operative treatment rather than conservative medical management. DISCUSSION: This report highlights the value of 3D-DSA in establishing the appropriate treatment plan for patients with unique cerebral aneurysms. The higher resolution images used in this case provided information that was crucial in shifting the treatment focus from medical management, for what appeared to be a mycotic aneurysm by traditional DSA, to surgical intervention, for a clear hemodynamic aneurysm at a vessel bifurcation seen with 3D-DSA. Accurate pre-interventional evaluation and differential diagnosis are critical to designing the most effective lowest risk treatment plan. The standard method in the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms has been DSA. Yet, higher resolution images of unclear or high-risk aneurysms are often required to guide clinical decision making. The emergence of new, less invasive endovascular techniques for securing intracranial aneurysms has placed greater emphasis on precisely defining the shape and dimensions of an aneurysm. Three-dimensional DSA is currently the highest resolution imaging modality available for the evaluation of intracranial aneurysms. CONCLUSION: 3D-DSA was used to evaluate a small, distal pericallosal artery aneurysm and revealed a saccular bifurcation aneurysm not visualized with magnetic resonance angiography and conventional DSA. This additional resolution permitted the team to consider a surgical approach for a patient who would otherwise have been treated medically. This high-resolution technique is particularly useful in guiding clinical decision making in the context of aneurysms that carry a relatively broad differential diagnosis, potentially high interventional risk, and unclear morphology.
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4/4. Changes in cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation during surgical evacuation for hypertensive intracerebral putaminal hemorrhage.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in cerebral hemodynamics, tissue oxygenation and blood flow before and after surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. methods: Eleven patients who underwent surgical decompression of spontaneous putaminal hematoma were studied. intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), brain tissue oxygen (PtiO2), and carbon dioxide tensions (PtiCO2), brain pH and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were recorded prior to removing the bone flap and then on skin closure on completion of the operation. RESULTS: Following surgical decompression, mean ICP decreased significantly (P < 0.05); mean CPP, PtiO2, brain pH and rCBF improved although the changes were not significant. CONCLUSION: Surgical decompression for spontaneous intracerebral hematomas leads to significant reductions in ICP. This is accompanied by improvements in CPP, PtiO2 and rCBF in the penumbra.
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