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1/20. Lenticulocapsular hemorrhages presenting as pure sensory stroke.

    Pure sensory stroke (PSS) syndrome is most often produced by a small infarct involving the lateral thalamus. Larger than lacune-sized putaminal hemorrhages have not been considered as a cause of this syndrome. The author describes 3 patients with hypertensive lenticulocapsular hemorrhage presenting with hemisensory symptoms without any other neurological deficits. In these patients, the sensory symptoms were more marked and persistent in the legs than in the other body parts. Neuroradiological data suggested that thalamocortical sensory pathways were exclusively involved. These patients highlight the heterogeneity of the vascular lesion producing PSS syndrome and illustrate that a putaminal hemorrhage should be included in the differential diagnosis of this clinical syndrome. ( info)

2/20. The role of hypertension in bromocriptine-related puerperal intracranial hemorrhage.

    The spate of medicolegal inquiries following the disqualification of Parlodel (bromocriptine mesylate) by the food and Drug Administration for postpartum ablactation, uncovered previously unreported side effects associated with its postpartum administration. In 1994, bromocriptine mesylate was withdrawn from the market as a milk suppressant. Since this time, over a dozen cases of postpartum intracranial hemorrhages associated with its use have been reported. We describe three additional cases of postpartum intracranial hemorrhage related to bromocriptine usage. One patient, previously normotensive, developed hypertension and a headache; initial CT was normal, but CT 24 h later demonstrated intracranial hemorrhage. This suggests that the blood-pressure elevation was drug-induced and was the cause, rather than the consequence, of bromocriptine-related intracranial hemorrhage. ( info)

3/20. Cerebral aneurysms in the perforating artery manifesting intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage--report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: An arteriosclerotic aneurysm in the perforating artery has been focused on as a causative factor for hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage. However, its pathogenesis remains unknown, and its existence is still a controversy. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 62-year-old female and a 70-year-old male with a history of hypertension suffered from intracerebral haemorrhage accompanied by subarachnoid haemorrhage. Cerebral angiograms demonstrated an aneurysm arising from the perforating artery at the central location of the haematoma in both cases. The aneurysms were confirmed as the cause of bleeding during microsurgery, and were resected. Histological examination of the surgical specimens revealed that the walls of the aneurysms lacked internal elastic lamina and consisted only of the adventitia. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the aneurysm in the perforating artery can be a causative factor for hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage, and indicate that the loss of internal elastic lamina induced by hypertension may contribute to the formation of the aneurysm of the perforating artery. ( info)

4/20. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage caused by pheochromocytoma in a child.

    We report a 6-year-old boy who presented with left occipital spontaneous lobar hematoma and hypertension. cerebral angiography failed to demonstrate a vascular malformation. Subsequently, a left adrenal tumor was found that proved to be a pheochromocytoma. This is the first report in the literature of a lobar hematoma in a child caused by a concomitant pheochromocytoma. In children with hypertension and resulting intracerebral hematoma, a pheochromocytoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis. ( info)

5/20. Simultaneous occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured aneurysm and remote hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage: case report.

    Simultaneous occurrence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is very rare and only two cases have been previously reported in the literatures. We present a case of 68-yr-old man with a history of untreated hypertension, who suffered from sudden onset of headache followed by right hemiparesis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed SAH in the basal cistern and remote ICH at the left putamen. cerebral angiography showed a saccular aneurysm at the anterior communicating artery. No other vascular anomaly could be found at left putaminal area. Nine days after the ictal attack of SAH, the neck of aneurysm was clipped via the left frontotemporal craniotomy. Because of the ICH at the left frontal lobe and intraventricular hematoma on postoperative CT, we performed hematoma removal and external ventricular drainage 3 hours after the first operation. Postoperative neurological status had been improved to be drowsy and he was discharged in a severely disabled state 4 weeks after surgery. We suggest that the rupture of aneurysm possibly caused a rapid increase in blood pressure and subsequently resulted in hypertensive ICH. ( info)

6/20. Cortical auditory disorder caused by bilateral strategic cerebral bleedings. Analysis of two cases.

    The authors present the anatomical and clinical features of cortical auditory dysfunction in two patients, in whom hypertensive bleedings destroyed the cortical auditory centres in both hemispheres. The second haemorrhage occurred four years after the first bleeding in both cases. The bleedings isolated the cortical hearing centres due to the destruction of the right and left temporal white matter. During the clinical course the symptomatology has changed in both patients: pure word deafness has transformed to cortical deafness and generalised auditory agnosia. Normal pattern of brain stem auditory evoked potentials suggested intact auditory pathways. Authors conclude that transformation of clinical forms of cortical auditory disorder can be explained by the tissue reaction to the subcortical bleeding in the cortical auditory centres. ( info)

7/20. Remote hypertensive intracerebral haematoma following clipping of an intracranial aneurysm.

    We report a case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Immediately following clipping of this aneurysm, she had a spontaneous hypertensive bleed in the contralateral hemisphere. Although very unusual, hypertensive episodes following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage must carry a risk of such an intracranial event. ( info)

8/20. Neuroendoscopic surgery for intracerebral haemorrhage--comparison with traditional therapies.

    endoscopy is a new therapeutic option for hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage. Although it has the advantages of being less invasive than craniotomy and more effective than conservative treatment, not all patients are candidates for it. Since it is important to clarify which characteristics of patients are indications for this operation, we retrospectively evaluated the role of endoscopic surgery in comparison with traditional treatments for hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage. Seven patients were treated with endoscopic surgery in our institution between January 2000 and November 2001. Two had thalamic haemorrhage, 4 putaminal haemorrhage, and 1 intracerebral haemorrhage. The average age of patients was 55 years. Endoscopic operation was mainly selected for haematomas more than 20 ml and less than 40 ml in volume. Generally, endoscopy yielded good outcomes with GR in 50 % of patients. Adequate indications for endoscopic operation may be the following; 1) Putaminal haematoma of small-intermediate size, 2) Haematoma situated deep in the brain, e. g., thalamic haemorrhage, 3) Intraventricular haematoma, 4) High-risk patients who cannot tolerate general anaesthesia. ( info)

9/20. Involuntary vocalisations and a complex hyperkinetic movement disorder following left side thalamic haemorrhage.

    A variety of involuntary speech phenomena as for example palilalia have been described as consequences of neurological disorders. Palilalia is the involuntary repetition of syllabels, words and phrases in ongoing speech. We describe a 73 year old woman who suffered from a hypertensive thalamic haemorrhage. MRI revealed that the lesion was predominantly located within the pulvinar, extending to the lateroposterior thalamic nuclei and to the pretectal area with possible involvement of the medial geniculate body. Few months after the event she developed involuntary vocalisations with whole words and meaningless syllables being rapidly reiterated. In contrast to typical palilalia these vocalisations were not meaningfully related to the ongoing speech of the patient. In addition, the patient developed a complex hyperkinetic movement disorder with right-sided painful hemidystonia and bilateral clonic jerks and a right-sided postural tremor. ( info)

10/20. Contributions of the human pulvinar to linking vision and action.

    In 3 patients with unilateral pulvinar lesions, we tested the pulvinar's role in selective attention processing. Each patient completed four variants of a flanker interference task in which they reported the color of a square of a specified size while ignoring an irrelevant flanker that appeared either contralesionally or ipsilesionally to the target. The main finding was that when target location was not known and target and flanker were associated with competing responses, reaction times to contralesional targets were longer than those to ipsilesional targets. Our findings suggest that pulvinar damage produces a contralesional deficit in response competition. ( info)
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