Cases reported "Intracranial Hemorrhages"

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1/81. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations and movement disorders.

    A series of six patients with movement disorders associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is reported. The AVMs were classified according to the Spetzler-Martin classification as grade V (one patient), grade IV (four patients), and as grade III (one patient). One patient had action-induced hemidystonia caused by a contralateral frontoparietal AVM which compressed the putamen and was supplied partially by enlarged lenticulostriate arteries. Two patients presented with unilateral cortical tremor associated with contralateral high-frontal cortical/subcortical AVMs sparing the basal ganglia. Another patient developed hemidystonia and hemichorea-hemiballism after bleeding of a contralateral temporooccipital AVM and subsequent ischemia. Two patients had focal dystonia after thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage from AVMs. Five patients were operated on. The movement disorder was abolished in one patient postoperatively. Different mechanisms were identified that are relevant for the development of AVM-related movement disorders: mass effect, diaschisis, local parenchymal altered cerebral blood flow, and hemorrhagic or ischemic structural lesions.
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keywords = cerebral
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2/81. Hemorrhagic moyamoya disease during pregnancy.

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial hemorrhage in pregnant patients with moyamoya disease is rare. We review the case of one such patient who presented with pre-eclampsia and a catastrophic intracerebral hemorrhage in order to highlight the associated management difficulties. methods: A case of a pregnant (31 weeks) female brought to the emergency department with hypertension and a progressive decrease in her level of consciousness is presented. She rapidly developed a dilated right pupil and left extensor posturing. A CT scan of her head showed a large putamenal intracerebral hemorrhage. She was intubated, ventilated and given intravenous mannitol and magnesium sulfate. She underwent a simultaneous craniotomy and cesarean section. Post-operatively the patient's ICP and jugular venous saturation were monitored in the intensive care unit. RESULTS: The patient delivered a 1185 g infant who did well. The patient's ICP was well controlled until the tenth post-operative day when she developed malignant brain edema and died. CONCLUSION: This case highlights three important points. First, simultaneous craniotomy and cesarean section can be performed. Second, intraoperative control of bleeding Moyamoya vessels is described. Third, the difficult post-operative management of these cases is highlighted. The literature regarding moyamoya disease and pregnancy is reviewed and some recommendations for the management of this rare but potentially deadly condition are presented.
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keywords = cerebral
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3/81. Biportal endoscopic removal of a primary intraventricular hematoma: case report.

    Primary intraventricular hematomas account for approximately 6% of all intracerebral hematomas. If the clot blocks cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways, surgical intervention, which may be of different types, can be life-saving. In the case reported here, after careful preoperative planning the use of two rigid endoscopes permitted the removal of most of the intraventricular clot and restoration of CSF circulation by creation of a 3rd ventriculostomy within the same procedure and no later treatment was necessary. Repeated CT scans proved that only a small portion of the intraventricular clot remained in the ventricular system. The ventricular size normalised, and the patency of the artificial hole in the floor of the 3rd ventricle was demonstrated both by the rapidly improving clinical picture of the patient and by flow-sensitive MRI studies. For individuals who suffer primary intraventricular hemorrhage and later develop occlusive hydrocephalus, endoscopic removal of the clot and 3rd ventriculostomy might offer a more adequate treatment option than external ventricular drainage.
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ranking = 0.57187215045066
keywords = cerebral, ventricle
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4/81. meningioma manifesting intracerebral haemorrhage: a possible mechanism of haemorrhage.

    We present a possible mechanism of intracerebral peritumoural haemorrhage in meningioma based on the clinical data of three of our cases. A meningioma manifesting intracerebral haemorrhage is uncommon and some sporadic case reports have been presented, but without any proven mechanisms. We are presenting three cases of convexity meningioma manifesting spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage with apoplectiform onset. All three patients had no evidence of bleeding tendency or other predisposing factors for haemorrhage. Preoperative radiological studies showed a solid mass attached to the dura with intracerebral peritumoural haematoma. Total removal of the tumour and haematoma could be achieved in every case. Histological investigation revealed extensive tumour infarction in two cases and fibrosis related to pre-existing ischaemia in the other case. The diagnoses were atypical meningioma in two cases and transitional type in one case. We suggest that extensive tumour infarction might be a cause of spontaneous intracerebral peritumoural haemorrhage in our series of patients.
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ranking = 4.5
keywords = cerebral
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5/81. Acute intracranial hemorrhage caused by acupuncture.

    A 44-year-old Chinese man developed severe occipital headache, nausea, and vomiting during acupuncture treatment of the posterior neck for chronic neck pain. Computed tomography of the head showed hemorrhage in the fourth, third, and lateral ventricles. A lumbar puncture confirmed the presence of blood. magnetic resonance angiography with gadolinium did not reveal any saccular aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. The patient's headache resolved over a period of 28 days without any neurological deficits. acupuncture of the posterior neck can cause acute intracranial hemorrhage.
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ranking = 0.071872150450655
keywords = ventricle
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6/81. An unusual complication of tapping a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    A case is reported describing a complication of an unsuccessful attempt to aspirate the reservoir of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt system with a suspected shunt infection. This arose due to a misunderstanding of the anatomy of the shunt and resulted in an intracerebral haematoma. The complications of cerebrospinal fluid shunting and the difficulty in the diagnosis thereof are outlined. We discuss the role and method of shunt tapping in diagnosing shunt problems before reviewing the literature describing the rationale. The variation in shunt design is emphasized. Guidelines are then proposed not to dissuade physicians from tapping shunts but to ensure that the procedure is performed safely and in collaboration with neurosurgical units.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = cerebral
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7/81. Recurrent intracerebral hemorrhages in cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a case report.

    cerebral amyloid angiopathy frequently causes recurrent intracerebral hemorrhages in elderly patients who do not have systemic hypertension. Surgery should be reserved for conditions which cannot be controlled by medical treatment. When surgery is needed, potential complications (such as bleeding near the operation site or remote area) should be kept in mind. A case study of a 66-year-old woman with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and recurrent intracerebral hemorrhages is presented.
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ranking = 5.5
keywords = cerebral
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8/81. Chronic encapsulated intracerebral haematoma in a patient with medically intractable epilepsy.

    A patient with a chronic encapsulated intracerebral haematoma presenting with medically intractable epilepsy is described. A tough capsule containing an old haematoma was confirmed surgically, and consisted of dense collagenous tissue with rich neovascularization. The radiological features, aetiology and treatment of this rare occurrence are discussed.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = cerebral
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9/81. The importance of identifying intracranial haemorrhage as a cause of transient focal neurological symptoms.

    Until recently, there have been no reports of intracerebral haemorrhage presenting with transient neurological symptoms. We present two cases of intracerebral haemorrhage presenting as transient ischaemic attacks and discuss the radiological changes on early and late CT scans. It would seem justified to scan most patients presenting with TIA early to institute appropriate secondary prevention measures.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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10/81. Amphetamine abuse and intracranial haemorrhage.

    amphetamines taken by any route can cause cerebral vasculitis and intracranial haemorrhage. 8 cases were seen in a neurosurgical unit over 3.5 years. The published work indicates that those who experience these complications, mainly young adults, have poor outcomes.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = cerebral
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