Cases reported "Intracranial Hemorrhages"

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1/51. Naming people ignoring semantics in a patient with left frontal damage.

    Studies about proper name anomia generally assume that persons' names are harder to recall than other semantic information one knows about them and that name retrieval is not possible without biographical knowledge. We describe a patient, SB, who, after a left frontal haemorrhage, was unable to recall any biographical information about people she could name. Moreover, she had a normal score in an Object Picture Naming Test, but gave confabulatory answers in a Semantic Questionnaire involving the same items. The role of frontal function in producing this pattern of impairment is discussed, together with the possible existence of a direct route from visual perception to proper name retrieval.
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2/51. Clinical manifestations of bacillus cereus meningitis in newborn infants.

    bacillus cereus (B. cereus) meningitis sometimes occurs in patients with risk factors, which are associated with central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, surgical or anaesthetic access to CNS. We observed two cases of B. cereus meningitis in neonates without such risk factors. The clinical courses of both neonates were fulminant, and routine antibiotic therapy failed. Intracranial haemorrhage was evident at autopsy. According to the previous neonatal case reports and our experience, we found that six of seven neonates were premature babies admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, five died within a week of onset of the disease, and six had intracranial haemorrhage. We speculate that B. cereus meningitis may occur in neonates, even without any of the risk factors previously described in adult case reports, and that the clinical manifestations of the meningitis might be characterized by the high incidence of intracranial haemorrhage and poor mortality.
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keywords = haemorrhage
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3/51. Severe factor v deficiency and neonatal intracranial haemorrhage: a case report.

    We report a case of severe factor V (FV) deficiency (<1%) associated with multiple episodes of intracranial bleeding which presented at birth. The clinical course was further complicated by the development of an inhibitor, episodes of sepsis and cardiac failure. The management using virally inactivated FFP and platelets is discussed.
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4/51. Clinical efficacy and recovery levels of recombinant FVIIa (NovoSeven) in the treatment of intracranial haemorrhage in severe neonatal FVII deficiency.

    The use of replacement FVII is critical to the successful treatment of life-threatening bleeds in newborns and infants with severe FVII deficiency (<1%). However, the clinical efficacy, optimum dosage and pharmacologic recovery of rFVIIa in such children has not been studied systematically. This report is a case of an infant with severe FVII deficiency (FVII:C at 0%) and massive intracranial haemorrhage in which successful use of rFVIIa (NovoSeven) was carefully monitored. The drug was administered by intravenous bolus through a central line every 4 h at each of three dose levels: 15 microg kg-1, 22 microg kg-1 and 30 microg kg-1. FVII:C was >100% between 30 and 180 min after each infusion with mean trough levels above 25% for all three dose levels. There was no evidence of hyper-coagulation as indicated by measurements of the platelet count, D-dimer, plasma protamine paracoagulant and fibrinogen levels in spite of high FVII:C concentration. In this infant, rFVIIa was well-tolerated, maintained effective haemostasis with good clinical outcome, and produced consistent therapeutic mean trough levels above 25% FVII:C even at 15 microg kg-1 every 4 h.
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keywords = haemorrhage
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5/51. Intraventricular haemorrhage in utero. A case-report and review of the literature.

    Intraventricular haemorrhages (IVH) are the most commonly occurring intracranial haemorrhages in neonates, especially in preterm infants. The origin of IVHs is located in the germinal matrix. The cause of an IVH is a combination of intravascular, vascular and extravascular factors. The diagnosis is made by ultrasound. knowledge on the causes of antenatal haemorrhages lags far behind knowledge on the causes of postnatal haemorrhages. In cases of haemodynamic changes in utero, ultrasound could be useful to examine the foetal brain. The presence of an intracranial haemorrhage in utero greatly influences the prognosis of the infant.
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keywords = haemorrhage
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6/51. meningioma manifesting intracerebral haemorrhage: a possible mechanism of haemorrhage.

    We present a possible mechanism of intracerebral peritumoural haemorrhage in meningioma based on the clinical data of three of our cases. A meningioma manifesting intracerebral haemorrhage is uncommon and some sporadic case reports have been presented, but without any proven mechanisms. We are presenting three cases of convexity meningioma manifesting spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage with apoplectiform onset. All three patients had no evidence of bleeding tendency or other predisposing factors for haemorrhage. Preoperative radiological studies showed a solid mass attached to the dura with intracerebral peritumoural haematoma. Total removal of the tumour and haematoma could be achieved in every case. Histological investigation revealed extensive tumour infarction in two cases and fibrosis related to pre-existing ischaemia in the other case. The diagnoses were atypical meningioma in two cases and transitional type in one case. We suggest that extensive tumour infarction might be a cause of spontaneous intracerebral peritumoural haemorrhage in our series of patients.
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keywords = haemorrhage
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7/51. Simultaneous occurrence of multiple aetiologies of polycythaemia: renal cell carcinoma, sleep apnoea syndrome, and relative polycythaemia in a smoker with masked polycythaemia rubra vera.

    A 58 year old male heavy smoker presented with intracranial haemorrhage and erythrocytosis. Four aetiologies of polycythaemia--polycythaemia rubra vera (PRV), renal cell carcinoma, sleep apnoea syndrome, and relative polycythaemia--were found to be associated with the underlying causes of erythrocytosis. He did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for PRV at initial presentation, but an erythropoietin independent erythroid progenitor assay identified the masked PRV, and the low post-phlebotomy erythropoietin concentration also suggested the likelihood of PRV evolution. This case demonstrates that a search for all the possible causes of erythrocytosis is warranted in patients who already have one aetiology of polycythaemia.
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keywords = haemorrhage
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8/51. A case report: intracranial haemorrhage in a patient with probable dengue fever.

    We present a rare case of a patient diagnosed with probable dengue fever sustaining an intracranial haemorrhage after a trivial motor vehicle accident. From the literature reviewed, it was noted that there have been no reports of dengue fever presenting with an intracranial haemorrhage, and the association is more common in patients diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever and/or dengue shock syndrome.
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keywords = haemorrhage
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9/51. Dissecting aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    Dissecting aneurysms frequently involve the vertebral arteries and their branches, but those exclusively on the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (pica) represent only 24 cases in the literature, including the four cases discussed in this article. The clinical diagnosis lacks pathognomonic signs or symptoms, with presentations such as subarachnoid haemorrhage or ischaemia of the brain stem or the cerebellum, and the management is controversial. Wrapping, clipping and embolisation of the aneurysms were tried in this series with different outcomes. Exclusion of the pathological segment should be performed, as shown by rebleeding from our case which was wrapped or by progression of the vascular disease in cases where treatment was delayed. Surgical or endovascular occlusion are well tolerated in our cases and in those reported from the literature, which implies the absence of normal perforating branches to the brain stem arising from the proximal dissected segment of the pica and a good collateral circulation. A revascularisation procedure using the occipital artery can be performed in order to prevent infarction if an endovascular test occlusion is not tolerated.
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10/51. Spontaneous haemorrhage into an empty sella turcica mimicking pituitary apoplexy.

    We present a case of spontaneous haemorrhage into an empty sella turcica with the features of subclinical pituitary apoplexy. A 66-year-old woman with a previously resected pituitary adenoma presented four months later with progressive headache and visual deterioration. Cranial MRI demonstrated hyperacute blood products in a recurrent pituitary adenoma. Operative findings were of subacute blood in an empty sella turcica. There was no operative or subsequent histological evidence of tumour recurrence. The intrasellar haemorrhage was evacuated via a trans-sphenoidal approach, resulting in a rapid improvement in visual function. Endocrine deficits required thyroxine, corticosteroid and desmopressin supplementation. Haemorrhage into an empty sella turcica has not been previously described and needs to be suspected as a clinical entity in patients presenting with the features of pituitary apoplexy. awareness of this clinical condition will prevent preoperative misdiagnosis.
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ranking = 6
keywords = haemorrhage
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