Cases reported "Intracranial Hemorrhages"

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11/24. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage from dural arteriovenous fistula.

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) cause several types of intracranial hemorrhage, but rarely cause primary intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). We report a 67-year-old man with sudden headache and a long history of a pulsatile bruit who developed intraventricular hemorrhage without any parenchymal hemorrhage. Cerebral angiogram revealed dural arteriovenous fistulas in transverse and sigmoid sinuses. Severe retrograde venous drainage seemed to have caused backward flow into the subependymal veins with their consequential rupture. Transvenous embolization was successful.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vein
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12/24. Vascular neurotoxicity following chemotherapy with cisplatin, ifosfamide, and etoposide.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity with multiple hemorrhages restricted to the corpus callosum associated with combination therapy of cisplatin, ifosfamide, and etoposide. CASE SUMMARY: A 38-year-old white man with a testicular germ cell tumor received a cisplatin-based chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin 45 mg (20 mg/m2), etoposide 570 mg (250 mg/m2), and ifosfamide 4600 mg (2000 mg/m2) given on 5 consecutive days during each course. After the first course of chemotherapy, the patient appeared to be neuropsychologically impaired with episodes of decreased alertness and features of a depressive syndrome. He became severely diminished in mental function, orientation, and psychomotor activity after a second course of treatment. In addition, he showed transient urinary incontinence. Motor and sensory deficits could not be detected. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple hemorrhages restricted to the corpus callosum. An objective causality assessment revealed that an adverse drug reaction was probable. DISCUSSION: Neurotoxicity has been associated with the administration of various antineoplastic agents. In particular, cisplatin and ifosfamide can cause both acute and delayed CNS toxicity. While ifosfamide neurotoxicity has been predominantly associated with neuropsychological impairment without evidence of structural abnormalities in neuroimaging studies, cisplatin has been shown to cause cerebrovascular complications. Various pathophysiologic conditions may contribute to these complications including thrombosis secondary to vascular endothelial injury or thromboembolic events. To our knowledge, as of December 2, 2003, vascular lesions restricted to the corpus callosum have not been reported as a complication of cisplatin- or ifosfamide-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of the potential neurovascular adverse effects of cisplatin-based protocols. This is especially true in patients with subtle neurologic or neuropsychological symptoms. Chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
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ranking = 104.58115485369
keywords = thrombosis
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13/24. Management of coagulopathy with recombinant factor viia in a neonate with echovirus type 7.

    A 5-day-old newborn presented with neonatal enteroviral infection. The patient's hospital course was complicated by acute liver dysfunction, renal insufficiency, fluid overload, respiratory failure, hypertension, catheter related thrombosis, klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis, intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate failed to control the patient's hemostasis and led to significant fluid overload. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, Novoseven NovoNordisk, Bagsvaerd, denmark) was given to the neonate as a bolus (rFVIIa at 60-80 microg/kg body weight), followed by a continuous infusion (2.5-16 microg/kg/hr). Recombinant activated factor VII controlled hemostasis, until the patient's liver function recovered. The patient's blood product requirement significantly decreased and his fluid overload resolved. Administration of rFVIIa appears to have stabilized the coagulation process. The patient appears to have fully recovered from the infection's complications.
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ranking = 104.58115485369
keywords = thrombosis
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14/24. Internal carotid artery aneurysm with life-threatening hemorrhages in a pediatric patient: endovascular treatment options.

    PURPOSE: To describe the management of a pediatric patient with recurrent, life-threatening nasopharyngeal hemorrhages due to a pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery (ICA), most likely caused by deep neck infection following peritonsillar abscess. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old boy presented with lymphadenopathy of the neck, torticollis, and difficulty swallowing that had persisted for some weeks. After sneezing, the patient suffered massive recurrent nasopharyngeal hemorrhages leading to anemia. Computed tomography identified a 2 x 2-cm hematoma in the left parapharyngeal space; angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm (14.1 x 8.2 mm) of the extracranial ICA adjacent to the skull base, without ongoing hemorrhage. A bare Wallstent was initially implanted, but total exclusion was achieved only after secondary placement of a Symbiot covered stent within the bare stent. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates the utility of an endovascular approach to an extracranial ICA pseudoaneurysm in a pediatric patient.
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ranking = 0.51048425959642
keywords = deep
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15/24. Thrombosed vertebral artery aneurysm presenting with hemorrhage and bulbar compression: report of two cases.

    Bulbar compression by vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm is extremely rare and only reported in a few cases. We report two cases with thrombosed VA aneurysm compressing medulla oblongata; one presented with bulbar apoplexy hemorrhage and the other with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 61-year-old male (case 1) presented with consciousness disturbances, left hemiplegia, and subsequent respiratory arrest. He was subjected to controlled ventilation, and computed tomography (CT) scan showed bulbar hemorrhage. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) revealed fusiform right VA aneurysm with partial thrombosis and bulbar compression. Intra-aneurysmal embolization with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) relieved his clinical symptom including respiratory disturbance. Three months after the onset, he remained moderately disabled. A 76-year-old male (case 2) presented with severe headache and subsequent respiratory disturbance. CT scan on admission showed subarachnoid hemorrhage with acute hydrocephalus. Ventricular drainage rapidly improved consciousness while respiratory disturbance persisted over several days. MRI and DSA suggested spontaneous thrombosis of the right VA dissection with bulbar compression. He showed gradual recovery of his respiration over a week. After ventriculo-peritoneal shunting, he was transferred with moderate disability. These results suggest that the elimination of the pulsatile effect of VA aneurysm adjacent to medulla oblongata can improve symptoms caused by aneurysm-related compression. early diagnosis and appropriate treatment such as intra-aneurysmal embolization for ameliorating the blood flow inside the aneurysm can relieve mass effect and clinical symptoms.
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ranking = 209.16230970738
keywords = thrombosis
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16/24. Cerebral venous thrombosis in a gentleman presenting with fever, convulsion and frontotemporal haemorrhages.

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon but serious type of stroke. Thrombosis may involve the cortical or deep veins or the venous sinuses. The presenting clinical features are non-specific. We report a 48-year-old man with CVT who presented with fever, bitemporal throbbing headache, and generalised convulsion. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed acute haemorrhages over right anterior frontal and posterior temporal regions with surrounding oedema and right anterior temporal subcortical oedema. The initial diagnosis was herpes simplex encephalitis. Absence of venous flow over the right transverse and sigmoid sinuses during the venous phase of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed CVT. He was anti-coagulated for 6 months. An underlying cause of CVT was not detected. A high index of suspicion is required when risk factors of CVT are present. CT brain may be normal or showing non-specific findings. magnetic resonance imaging plus venography, CT venography, or DSA is diagnostic.
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ranking = 579.32549318811
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, vein, deep
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17/24. anuria due to acute bilateral renal vein occlusion after thrombolysis for pulmonary embolism.

    Severe hemorrhage is the more frequent complication of thrombolysis, with intracranial bleeding the most critical one. We report a 73-year-old woman with major pulmonary embolism (PE), yet haemodynamically stable, in whom thrombolysis resulted in severe complications with acute renal failure (ARF) due to bilateral renal vein occlusion, quite unexpected; this complication has never been reported, as yet. We believe that disrupture of peripheral vein clots by thrombolysis led to migration of thrombi particles upwards to the inferior vena cava (IVC) and bilateral renal vein occlusion. However, the large thrombus straddled to the bifurcation of the main pulmonary trunk and extending to the right pulmonary artery, as visualized by transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), was not affected by thrombolysis. Finally, endogenous fibrinolytic activity, under low molecular weight heparin, resulted in a slow dissolution of the pulmonary thrombus and restoration of kidney function.
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ranking = 7
keywords = vein
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18/24. Intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with SLE and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS): report of a case.

    A 31-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital for investigation of left lower limb thrombophlebitis. history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations led to the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), complicated by secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Treatment included steroids, azathioprine, aspirin, and low molecular weight heparin. Sixty-three days later, she was admitted to the hospital again because of high fever, macroscopic hematuria, and dyspnea. Laboratory testing showed anemia and impaired renal function. High-resolution chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral multiple peribronchial infiltrates with hemorrhage. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) angiography of the kidneys revealed left renal vein thrombosis combined with ischemia of the left kidney. cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone pulse treatment as well as intravenous immunoglobulins were started immediately. Despite intensive immunosuppressive and supportive treatment, she suffered three relapses of alveolar hemorrhage and died on day 40, due to severe intracerebral bleeding. The final diagnosis was catastrophic APS with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and kidney involvement. The unusual combination of recurrent alveolar hemorrhage and death from intracerebral hemorrhage rather than thrombosis in a CAPS patient is discussed.
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ranking = 213.16168041679
keywords = thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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19/24. Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome associated with cortical blindness.

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted for investigation of sudden loss of vision. Extensive plum-purple papules and nodules involved her skin and lips but not mucosae. A cutaneous biopsy demonstrated irregular vascular cavernous channels in the dermis and subcutis; deeper vessels displayed smooth muscle. Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome was diagnosed. This patient had no gastrointestinal symptoms, no family history of blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome, and only developed cutaneous signs after 60 years of age. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain found multiple cerebral and cerebellar cavernomas with two larger foci of haemorrhage in both occipital lobes, with the largest in the right occipital lobe being associated with calcification. These most likely represent bleeding in relation to cavernomas believed to be the cause of decreased vision, predominantly in the left eye.
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ranking = 0.51048425959642
keywords = deep
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20/24. Treatment of intracranial and extracranial haemorrhages in a neonate with severe haemophilia B with recombinant factor ix infusion.

    Intracranial (ICH) and extracranial (ECH) haemorrhages are potentially life-threatening events that may occur comorbidly in neonates with haemophilia. There is little data on the use of recombinant factor ix (rFIX; BeneFIX in the neonate. Children <15 years of age are known to require higher doses of recombinant factor ix (FIX) than older persons, which raises specific concerns in the neonate due to the increased risk of thrombosis in this age group (Thromb Haemost 2002; 87: 431). This report describes a case in which a high rate of continuous infusion of recombinant FIX was used to treat a newborn with significant intracranial and subgaleal haemorrhages. A high rate of infusion maintained at 30-35 U kg(-1) h(-1) was necessary to maintain adequate FIX levels. Despite the high rate of continuous infusion, no adverse events were noted. Our patient had a rare genetic mutation causing severe haemophilia B. A neonate with severe haemophilia B was treated successfully with recombinant FIX through continuous infusion. A high rate of infusion was required and no complications were noted.
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ranking = 104.58115485369
keywords = thrombosis
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