Cases reported "Intracranial Hypertension"

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1/11. Extrinsic cerebral venous sinus obstruction resulting in intracranial hypertension.

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man reporting with headache and visual disturbances who was being treated for prostate cancer. Investigations showed him to have intracranial hypertension caused by venous sinus obstruction. patients with metastatic disease and raised intracranial pressure in the absence of focal signs should be considered as possible cases of venous outflow obstruction.
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2/11. syndrome simulating pseudotumor cerebri caused by partial transverse venous sinus obstruction in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of partial transverse venous sinus obstruction causing a syndrome resembling pseudotumor cerebri. METHOD: Case report. A 61-year-old man developed decreased vision, bilateral papilledema, and a highly increased cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a small, extra-axial mass near the torcula, which was dismissed as an incidental meningioma because cerebral angiography showed sinus patency. RESULTS: The patient's vision worsened. biopsy of the enlarging mass disclosed metastatic prostate cancer. After radiation therapy, the mass shrank, magnetic resonance angiography disclosed reopening of the transverse sinuses, and papilledema resolved, but visual fields remained severely compromised. CONCLUSION: Partial blockage of the dural venous sinus by a small mass near the torcula can cause a sufficient increase in intracranial pressure to produce vision-threatening papilledema.
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3/11. Reversible coma with raised intracranial pressure: an unusual clinical manifestation of cadasil.

    A 50-year-old woman presented with recurrent episodes of headache, nausea and disturbed consciousness that were fully reversible within a few days. Clinical and radiological findings suggested raised intracranial pressure, which on one occasion was confirmed by intracranial pressure monitoring. magnetic resonance imaging performed in the asymptomatic interval disclosed a diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Brain biopsy surprisingly revealed the typical vascular changes of cadasil and subtle endothelial alterations. The white matter showed edematous changes and reactive gliosis. Mutational analysis of the Notch3 gene revealed a previously unreported mutation. We suggest that a transient disturbance of the blood-brain barrier related to the underlying vascular pathology may have caused this unusual presentation of cadasil.
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4/11. High and low pressure states associated with posterior sacral meningocele.

    We describe the rare cases of a 44-year-old woman and a 28-year-old woman each presenting with a large posterior sacrococcygeal mass and alternating symptoms of high and low intracranial pressure. The first patient underwent excision of her large sacral meningocele and simple ligation of the neck, resulting in resolution of all her associated symptoms. The second patient suffered traumatic rupture of the meningocele; she underwent excision of the redundant sac and repair of the dural defect using a musculofascial flap, also resulting in resolution of her symptoms.
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5/11. Post-traumatic superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Case report and analysis of the international literature.

    The objective of this study is to focus attention on cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), a rather infrequent disease, especially when following closed head injury. Consequently we started from the clinical case report, concerning a patient admitted to our polyvalent ICU in the Hospital of Avezzano (AQ), italy. The patient was a 15-year-old girl, that developed superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis following closed head injury (pedestrian run down by a car): owing to slow and progressive onset of deep coma with severe intracranial hypertension, emergency decompressive craniectomy was performed. The result was satisfying: patient conditions progressively improved, with return to consciousness, to good mobility and to good mental status. At present, 1 year after trauma, only mild disability is left over (right hand prehensile strength loss, and slightly moving gait). In conclusion, considering the literature data (intracerebral haematoma and deep coma are poor outcome predictors) and clinical evolution, we decided an aggressive surgical approach to save the patient's life, with satisfying results.
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6/11. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage after carotid stenting.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) following carotid angioplasty and stent placement (CAS) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is well known. We report the occurrence of fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient undergoing CAS. CASE REPORT: A 77-year-old woman experiencing a left-hemispheric transient ischemic attack underwent CAS for a 95% stenosis of the left ICA. CAS was performed without acute complications. At 5 hours the patient suddenly deteriorated. Her level of consciousness changed and she developed neck stiffness. CT of the brain revealed diffuse SAH with acute hydrocephalus. CONCLUSIONS: Like ICH, SAH may develop as a severe complication after CAS. There are no reliable clinical symptoms preceding this fatal complication. However, several factors such as long-standing severe carotid stenosis with contralateral occlusion and increasing blood pressure after CAS accompanied by the extensive use of antithrombotic agents may predispose to this fatal complication.
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7/11. Rapid cognitive decline following lumbar puncture in a patient with a dural arteriovenous fistula.

    BACKGROUND: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are frequently accompanied with raised intracranial pressure and clinical findings suggestive of pseudotumor cerebri. However, unlike pseudotumor cerebri, the clinical response to lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal can vary from beneficial to acute clinical deterioration leading to death. The criteria for the safe use of lumbar puncture (LP) in patients with a DAVF are not well established. methods: A 61-year-old man presented with visual difficulty. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography revealed a left transverse sinus DAVF. He underwent multiple embolizations of arterial feeders over 3 years. He was then noted to have cognitive deficits in short term memory, listening, and concentrating. Over several days after an LP he became increasingly lethargic but arousable. Within hours after a repeat LP there was a rapid deterioration in the patient's level of consciousness and he became unarousable. RESULTS: A brain MRI revealed extensive dilated cortical veins and left temporal lobe venous ischemia without tonsillar herniation. A cerebral angiogram showed an extensive left transverse sinus DAVF with an occluded lateral transverse sinus and increased retrograde venous drainage. Embolization of the arterial feeders in combination with trans-venous coil embolization of the left transverse sinus reversed the patient's neurologic decline. He was discharged neurologically intact except for his chronic visual acuity problems. CONCLUSION: We speculate that when a DAVF manifests retrograde venous flow sufficient to cause cognitive deficits, lumbar CSF drainage must be undertaken with extreme caution.
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8/11. Miller-Fisher syndrome mimicking intracranial hypertension following head trauma.

    INTRODUCTION: Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a polyneuropathy with benign outcome characterized by ophthalmoplegia, limb ataxia and tendon areflexia. Impaired consciousness level and intracranial hypertension are very rare symptoms in MFS. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 5-year-old girl who showed intracranial hypertension, transient coma and respiratory failure after mild head injury; moreover the patient showed mild ataxia, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia and autonomic disturbances. These symptoms were suggestive of MFS. Electrophysiologic studies and laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis and immunoglobulins and steroids were given. The child showed a progressive clinical improvement and the final outcome was good. CONCLUSION: This case, initially managed as trauma injury due to the presence of suggestive signs and clinical history, maskered an atypical presentation of Miller-Fisher syndrome, a rare disorder of central nervous system.
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9/11. Bifrontal decompressive craniotomy in a 6-month-old infant with posttraumatic refractory intracranial hypertension.

    OBJECTIVE: To document the outcome of bifrontal decompressive craniotomy (BDC) in an infant who developed refractory intracranial hypertension (IH) and massive brain infarction following severe head injury. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 6-month-old girl sustained a severe closed head injury in a car accident. Her Glasgow coma score dropped from 10 to 6/15 within 6 h after admission, and her pupils became dilated and fixed. CT brain scans showed severe brain swelling and extensive infarction in both cerebral hemispheres with no grey-white mater differentiation. She developed a state of refractory IH despite maximal medical treatment. INTERVENTION: She had BDC and duraplasty carried out 8 h after admission. She made a quick recovery to Glasgow outcome score 3, and her total hospital stay was 10 weeks. CONCLUSION: BDC can be a life-saving procedure for infants with refractory IH and massive brain infarction.
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10/11. Early combined cranioplasty and programmable shunt in patients with skull bone defects and CSF-circulation disorders.

    OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the clinical outcome after early combined cranioplasty (own frozen bone) and shunt implantation (Codman-Medos programmable VP shunt) in patients with skull bone defects and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disorders.METHOD: medical records were reviewed retrospectively for the last 100 patients with CSF disorders after trauma or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), who previously underwent decompressive craniotomy owing to therapy-resistant brain swelling. patients treated with early (5 to 7 weeks after injury) combined cranioplasty and shunt implantation were analysed and a follow-up for the survivors was obtained.RESULTS: In 60 patients with a daily CSF external drainage over 150 ml and dilated ventricles in CT scan, a programmable VP shunt was implanted simultaneously with the cranioplasty within 5.1 weeks after decompression. The neurological condition 6 months later was good (independent patients) in 39 cases (65%); 12 patients (20%) survived with a severe disability; three patients (5%) remained in a persistent vegetative state and only six patients (10%) died. There were few complications: bone or shunt infection (three cases), post-operative intracranial bleeding (one case), transitory neurological impairment after bone reimplantation (two cases), bone resorption (two cases) and shunt dysfunction (three cases).CONCLUSION: The early reimplantation of the patient's own skull bone combined to the employment of a programmable shunt system allowed us a dynamic adjustment of the intracranial pressure (ICP) changes. The combined treatment reduced the number of required surgical procedures, complications and unsatisfactory patient outcomes.
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