Cases reported "Intracranial Hypertension"

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1/23. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and benign intracranial hypertension in pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: case report.

    ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a dangerous and sometimes life-threatening complication of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotrophins. While many complications of severe OHSS are recognized we have only identified one review detailing neurological problems. This report concerns a 32-year-old patient with bilateral tubal blockage who achieved her first pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. Shortly after embryo transfer she developed clinical signs of moderate OHSS with symptoms which were later diagnosed as benign intracranial hypertension (BIH). The BIH was treated effectively using repeated lumbar puncture and diuretics. Spontaneous labour and delivery occurred at 40 weeks' gestation. There was no neurological sequel and no recurrence of the BIH 2 years after the pregnancy. The possible link between OHSS and BIH is discussed as well as the risks of further pregnancy.
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2/23. Reversal of increased intracranial pressure with removal of a torcular epidermoid: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Venous obstruction has been postulated as a cause of increased intracranial pressure, but it has been documented rarely. We present a case of obstruction of the torcula by a slow-growing epidermoid. The tumor caused increased intracranial pressure, which was relieved when it was excised. In addition, the torcular epidermoid is associated with a bifid straight sinus. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old man presented with a headache and a lump on the back of the head. physical examination revealed a firm, bony lesion approximately 4 x 4 cm in size. Lumbar puncture demonstrated an intraspinal pressure of 39 cm H2O. Neuroradiological studies revealed an epidermoid that compressed and almost completely occluded the torcula. INTERVENTION: After the tumor was resected, the intraspinal pressure decreased to 19 cm H2O and remained stable 6 months later. CONCLUSION: Pure venous obstruction causes increased intracranial pressure. Removal of the obstruction relieves the intracranial hypertension. In addition, computed tomographic venography is a safe and easy method of documenting torcular anatomy, and it was useful in the follow-up of this patient. Computed tomographic venography can demonstrate a double straight sinus, which is a congenital variant that may be associated with the epidermoid.
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3/23. Idiopathic "benign" intracranial hypertension: case series and review.

    Idiopathic "benign" intracranial hypertension is an uncommon but important cause of headache that can lead to visual loss. This study was undertaken to review our experience in the diagnosis and management of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, giving special attention to treatments used. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 32 patients diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension between 1984 and 1995. Subjects included 23 females and ranged in age from 2 to 17.5 years. headache was the most common symptom, followed by nausea and vomiting, double vision, and visual loss. papilledema was the most common sign. Others were VIth cranial nerve palsy and compromised visual acuity at or within 3 months of presentation. Management included administration of acetazolamide or corticosteroids, lumboperitoneal shunt, optic nerve fenestration, and repeat lumbar puncture. Treatment combinations were used in 40% of cases. During follow-up, headache, papilledema, and decreased visual acuity persisted for longer than 10 months in a significant number of patients. We conclude that idiopathic intracranial hypertension causes significant short- and long-term morbidity with no proven effective treatment available. A prospective study is needed to establish the indications for treatment and the efficacy of the treatments used.
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4/23. Case report. recurrence of increased intracranial pressure with antiretroviral therapy in an AIDS patient with cryptococcal meningitis.

    We present the case of an AIDS patient with cryptococcal meningitis who, after an excellent clinical and mycological response to antifungal therapy, developed an exacerbation of signs and symptoms, including elevated intracranial pressure and an increase in cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen and white blood cells, following the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Cultures yielded no growth and the patient responded to repeated lumbar punctures without changing or intensifying antifungal therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of symptomatic elevated intracranial pressure occurring during HAART-related immune recovery in a patient with cryptococcal meningitis. Exacerbation of symptoms does not necessarily reflect mycological failure that requires a change in antifungal therapy, but may relate to acutely increased intracranial pressure that will respond to simple measures, such as repeated lumbar punctures.
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5/23. anemia and papilledema.

    PURPOSE: To elucidate the relationship between anemia and raised intracranial pressure (ICP). DESIGN: Interventional case series. methods: Retrospective case series and review of the literature. Only patients with documented papilledema, neuroimaging ruling out a space-occupying lesion, and anemia were included. RESULTS: Five women with confirmed idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) (normal brain magnetic resonance imaging, normal cerebrospinal fluid, elevated intracranial pressure), and one man with presumed IIH (normal head computed tomography [CT], no lumbar puncture) were evaluated. All had bilateral papilledema associated with peripapillary hemorrhages. Two had retinal cotton-wool spots (CWS), and two had preretinal hemorrhages. All had severe iron deficiency anemia, which was discovered at the time of their ocular complaints in five of them. Their symptoms and signs improved dramatically after treatment of the anemia. We found 30 well-documented cases in the English and French literature. Among those, 13 were excluded from our analyses (11 had confounding disorders, and two had cerebral venous thrombosis). In the remaining 17 cases, isolated raised ICP associated with anemia was the most likely diagnosis, although in none of these cases was cerebral venous thrombosis excluded. CONCLUSIONS: anemia may play a role in the occurrence of raised ICP and papilledema. Although only a few cases in the literature support this association, it may be more common than previously thought. Because most patients are not known to be anemic when papilledema is discovered, we suggest that a complete blood count be obtained in patients with IIH, especially in the absence of known associated factors such as obesity or medications or when treatment aimed at lowering ICP fails to improve the patient's symptoms. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown, but cerebral venous thrombosis should be carefully excluded.
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6/23. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension and postlumbar puncture headache.

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension and low cerebrospinal pressure are 2 conditions that are thought to be on opposite ends of the cerebrospinal pressure spectrum. headache is the prominent component of both conditions. We describe a patient whose evaluation for idiopathic intracranial hypertension resulted in a postlumbar puncture headache. Although not entirely intuitive, we suggest that the 2 conditions can be present in the same patient.
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7/23. Elevated intracranial pressure associated with idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis syndrome.

    The idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome typically occurs in young patients and may produce multiple retinal macroaneurysms, neuroretinitis, and peripheral capillary nonperfusion. Optic disc edema has been described, but elevated intracranial pressure has not been previously documented. We report a case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with bilateral disc swelling and peripapillary hemorrhage. brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal, but lumbar puncture yielded an opening pressure of 360 mm H2O with normal constituents. fluorescein angiography delineated saccular aneurysms of the retinal arteriolar vasculature, and IRVAN syndrome was diagnosed. MR venography disclosed poor filling of both transverse venous sinuses. acetazolamide treatment of 14 months did not alter the fundus findings. IRVAN syndrome may present initially with optic nerve swelling and elevated intracranial pressure with subsequent development of the characteristic retinal vascular abnormalities.
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8/23. Rapid cognitive decline following lumbar puncture in a patient with a dural arteriovenous fistula.

    BACKGROUND: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are frequently accompanied with raised intracranial pressure and clinical findings suggestive of pseudotumor cerebri. However, unlike pseudotumor cerebri, the clinical response to lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal can vary from beneficial to acute clinical deterioration leading to death. The criteria for the safe use of lumbar puncture (LP) in patients with a DAVF are not well established. methods: A 61-year-old man presented with visual difficulty. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography revealed a left transverse sinus DAVF. He underwent multiple embolizations of arterial feeders over 3 years. He was then noted to have cognitive deficits in short term memory, listening, and concentrating. Over several days after an LP he became increasingly lethargic but arousable. Within hours after a repeat LP there was a rapid deterioration in the patient's level of consciousness and he became unarousable. RESULTS: A brain MRI revealed extensive dilated cortical veins and left temporal lobe venous ischemia without tonsillar herniation. A cerebral angiogram showed an extensive left transverse sinus DAVF with an occluded lateral transverse sinus and increased retrograde venous drainage. Embolization of the arterial feeders in combination with trans-venous coil embolization of the left transverse sinus reversed the patient's neurologic decline. He was discharged neurologically intact except for his chronic visual acuity problems. CONCLUSION: We speculate that when a DAVF manifests retrograde venous flow sufficient to cause cognitive deficits, lumbar CSF drainage must be undertaken with extreme caution.
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9/23. The pseudopapilledema of neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease.

    PURPOSE: To report a rare case of neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease with serial photographs to characterize the optic nerve findings. DESIGN: Observational case report. methods: A 6-year-old girl with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, who had received systemic corticosteroid therapy for 5 years, had bilateral fibrillar opacities that surrounded the optic disks and extended into the peripapillary nerve fiber layer and vessels. A magnetic resonance imaging examination and lumbar puncture revealed elevated intracranial pressure. RESULTS: The elevated intracranial pressure returned to normal following a corticosteroid taper. optic disk photographs, taken 4 years earlier, were subsequently obtained. The optic disk appearance had remained unchanged over the 4-year period, consistent with a pseudopapilledema. CONCLUSION: The optic disk appearance is not consistent with papilledema from increased intracranial pressure. The optic disk findings, in conjunction with the underlying inflammatory syndrome, suggest an infiltrative etiology for the atypical optic nerve findings in neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease.
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10/23. papilledema and abducens nerve palsy following ethylene glycol ingestion.

    A 34-year-old male with a long-standing history of polysubstance abuse and depression was admitted for acute renal failure and hemodialysis secondary to ethylene glycol ingestion that occurred two days prior. The patient was admitted with documented ethylene glycol levels of 41.2 mg/dl, which fell to 25.0 mg/dl after 8 hours and to 6 mg/dl after 12 hours. One week later the patient presented to the outpatient eye clinic complaining of headaches and diplopia. On exam, vision in both eyes was 20/20. No afferent papillary defect was present. The patient had a left abducens palsy. The remainder of the anterior segment exam was normal. On dilated fundus exam the patient was found to have 3 disc edema with hemorrhages in both eyes. A lumbar puncture revealed elevated intracranial pressure. In our opinion, the patient developed a left abducens nerve palsy and bilateral disc edema secondary to a transient rise in intracranial pressure after ingestion of ethylene glycol.
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