Cases reported "Intracranial Hypotension"

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1/9. Low-pressure shunt 'malfunction' following lumbar puncture in children with shunted obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Most shunt malfunctions present with signs and symptoms of high intracranial pressure, and computed tomography scans demonstrate ventricular enlargement. However, several authors have described a rare 'low-pressure' hydrocephalic state in which ventricular enlargement can occur in the face of low, or even negative, intracranial pressures. We report 2 children with obstructive hydrocephalus in whom this 'low-pressure state' followed a lumbar puncture; in both children, the shunts were functioning properly despite increased ventricular size on computed tomography scans, and all symptoms resolved (and the ventricles returned to baseline) following a period of enforced recumbency without shunt revision. We hypothesize that subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the puncture site in the lumbar theca decreases the intracranial pressures globally to a point below the opening pressures of the shunt valves. The ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, unable to be drained through either the subarachnoid space or the shunt, accumulates within the ventricular system under low pressure. One consistent feature in our 2 patients has been the postural nature of the headaches. We recommend enforced recumbency and, if necessary, a blood patch to seal the lumbar leakage. Shunt revision or prolonged external ventricular drainage appears to be unnecessary in these patients. Finally, neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication.
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2/9. life-threatening intracranial hypotension after diagnostic lumbar puncture.

    intracranial hypotension syndrome as a complication of diagnostic lumbar puncture is a rarely observed entity. intracranial hypotension syndrome is characterized by postural headache, neck pain/stiffness, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, clouding of consciousness, dizziness and vertigo. The majority of cases resolve spontaneously with conservative treatment. Rarely, epidural blood patch is required. We report a 41-year-old man with multiple sclerosis, who developed intracranial hypotension syndrome after diagnostic lumbar puncture and who did not respond to conservative treatment. A subdural hematoma was subsequently found, when the patient showed considerable worsening of clinical conditions with life-threatening symptoms. Surgical evacuation of the subdural hematoma was not sufficient to improve significantly the patient's conditions, while complete symptoms remission was achieved 12 hours after epidural blood patch. We stress the need for epidural blood patch in any case of post-diagnostic lumbar puncture postural headache which does not resolve with conservative therapy.
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3/9. High and low pressure states associated with posterior sacral meningocele.

    We describe the rare cases of a 44-year-old woman and a 28-year-old woman each presenting with a large posterior sacrococcygeal mass and alternating symptoms of high and low intracranial pressure. The first patient underwent excision of her large sacral meningocele and simple ligation of the neck, resulting in resolution of all her associated symptoms. The second patient suffered traumatic rupture of the meningocele; she underwent excision of the redundant sac and repair of the dural defect using a musculofascial flap, also resulting in resolution of her symptoms.
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4/9. Treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension secondary to C-2 meningeal cyst by surgical packing--case report.

    A 41-year-old man presented with progressive worsening of postural headache. Computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral subdural hematomas without prior history of trauma. The diagnosis was spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Conservative treatment with oral steroids failed to prevent gradual deterioration of the patient's consciousness. CT myelography revealed massive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage between the C-1 and C-2 levels. The leak was repaired surgically via a laminectomy. A cyst, thought to be a meningeal cyst, was discovered adjacent to the right C-2 nerve root, and CSF was seen seeping out from around the cyst after a valsalva maneuver. The presumed dural defect of the cyst was sealed by packing with muscle fragments and fibrin glue. The symptoms disappeared soon after surgery. He was discharged 1 month after surgery without deficits. Most SIH cases are benign and can be managed conservatively, or by the epidural blood patch method. Surgery is more invasive than the epidural blood patch method, but should be performed in patients with a high cervical lesion and massive CSF leakage.
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keywords = consciousness
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5/9. Rapid fluctuations in conscious state in a patient with an extensive spinal dural fistula.

    A man with a spontaneous spinal dural fistula and significant fluctuations in level of consciousness is discussed. The presentation was that of headache and vomiting followed by an initially enigmatic acute reduction in the level of consciousness. This required urgent evacuation of bilateral chronic subdural haematomas, believed to be causative. Following mobilisation, several episodes of presumed orthostatic intracranial hypotension occurred rendering the patient rapidly unconscious. A large spinal extradural CSF collection extending through the full length of the vertebral canal was later diagnosed however, the precise location of the fistulous leak could not be found radiologically. Non-operative management was successful. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak of this magnitude. The case, pathogenesis, investigations and management of this rare entity are considered and the literature reviewed.
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keywords = consciousness, state
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6/9. A complicated case of intracranial hypotension: diagnostic and management strategies.

    We report a case of a patient aged 66 years, with spontaneous intracranial hypotension presenting initially with postural headache, complicated by subdural haematomas and followed by progressive decline of his clinical condition evolving in obtundation state, cranial nerve involvement and gaze paralysis. The patient underwent a long course of different therapeutical approaches: medical and surgical treatment, intrathecal saline infusion and epidural blood patching (EBP). Rapid and dramatic relief of the patient's symptoms was obtained after a third lumbar EBP and he was discharged asymptomatic two weeks later.
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7/9. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension resulting in coma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a potentially severe condition characterized by a distinct clinical picture caused by low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Although coma has been reported previously as a presentation of this condition, this is the first report in which misdiagnosis of this condition and unwarranted surgery led to coma. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old man presented with a history of headache, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral chronic subdural hematomas. After evacuation of the hematoma, the patient's condition deteriorated into a state of profound depression of consciousness. Repeated cranial computed tomographic scans showed intracranial air, and intracranial pressure monitoring showed negative recording. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated epidural cerebrospinal fluid leaks at the middle and lower thoracic levels. INTERVENTION: Epidural blood patch resulted in almost immediate improvement in the patient's condition, and he was fully awake 24 hours later. CONCLUSION: This case report expands the presently known clinical spectrum of this uncommon and generally benign illness.
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8/9. intracranial hypotension syndrome following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine.

    Cervical spine manipulation has been associated with several disorders such as cervical arteries dissection, but rarely has a relationship with intracranial hypotension been reported. We describe a patient showing intracranial hypotension syndrome following chiropractic cervical spine treatment. Magnetic resonance showed the presence of dural leakage at cervical level, suggesting the pathogenesis of the syndrome. We state that cervical spine manipulation should be considered a treatment with risk of neurological complications, including the occurrence of intracranial hypotension.
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9/9. intracranial hypotension presenting with severe encephalopathy. Case report.

    A patient with severe and protracted symptoms from intracranial hypotension is described. The patient's presentation was marked by diffuse encephalopathy and profound depression of consciousness. This case report expands the presently known clinical spectrum of this uncommon and generally benign illness. The clinical and laboratory findings typically observed in the syndrome of intracranial hypotension are outlined. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the phenomenon are briefly discussed. intracranial hypotension is a potentially severe illness with specific treatments that are distinct from the treatment of most neurological diseases. Three cardinal features--postural headache, pachymeningitis, and descent of midline cerebral structures--should prompt the diagnosis.
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