Cases reported "Intracranial Hypotension"

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11/35. syndrome of cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia following lumbar puncture cerebrospinal fluid leak in a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    An 11-year-old girl presented with headache of 3 months' duration. There was bilateral disc edema. The cerebrospinal fluid pressure was 50 cm of water with normal cerebrospinal fluid cytology and biochemistry. She developed severe headache (different and disabling), dizziness, vomiting, and backache on sitting up 6 hours after lumbar puncture, and lying supine relieved all of her symptoms. Intravenous fluids, analgesics, and complete bed rest did not relieve her symptoms over the next 72 hours. She was completely relieved of her symptoms on receiving two tablets of Caffergot containing 200 mg of caffeine and 2 mg of ergotamine 72 hours after lumbar puncture. The symptoms recurred 48 hours later, and a repeat dose of Caffergot was required. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done 96 hours after lumbar puncture revealed the entire dura overlying the brain, including the posterior fossa, showing intense enhancement on contrast injection with leak at the lumbar puncture site. Oral caffeine (coffee, three times a day) was advised over 1 week. The patient remained asymptomatic, and a repeat MRI scan after 10 days showed complete clearing of the cerebrospinal fluid leak with no dural enhancement. The syndrome of cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia following lumbar puncture is reported in a girl with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
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12/35. life-threatening intracranial hypotension after diagnostic lumbar puncture.

    intracranial hypotension syndrome as a complication of diagnostic lumbar puncture is a rarely observed entity. intracranial hypotension syndrome is characterized by postural headache, neck pain/stiffness, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, clouding of consciousness, dizziness and vertigo. The majority of cases resolve spontaneously with conservative treatment. Rarely, epidural blood patch is required. We report a 41-year-old man with multiple sclerosis, who developed intracranial hypotension syndrome after diagnostic lumbar puncture and who did not respond to conservative treatment. A subdural hematoma was subsequently found, when the patient showed considerable worsening of clinical conditions with life-threatening symptoms. Surgical evacuation of the subdural hematoma was not sufficient to improve significantly the patient's conditions, while complete symptoms remission was achieved 12 hours after epidural blood patch. We stress the need for epidural blood patch in any case of post-diagnostic lumbar puncture postural headache which does not resolve with conservative therapy.
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13/35. Symptomatic spinal extramedullary mass lesion secondary to chronic overdrainage of ventricular fluid--case report.

    A 69-year-old man presented with progressive nuchal pain and spastic gait 2 years after undergoing ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting for a pineal astrocytoma with obstructive hydrocephalus. The neurological manifestations were compatible with radiculomyelopathy caused by an upper cervical lesion. magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhanced extramedullary mass lesion tightly constricting the upper cervical spinal cord. The pressure of the shunt system was 150 mmH2O, and lumbar puncture revealed normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure of 170 mmH2O. After removal of the shunt system, the clinical symptoms and neuroradiological findings markedly improved. This symptomatic spinal mass lesion was thought to be formed secondary to chronic depletion of ventricular CSF through the VP shunt.
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14/35. Orthostatic headache syndrome with CSF leak secondary to bony pathology of the cervical spine.

    The syndrome of orthostatic (low pressure) headaches is well described and most commonly occurs following deliberate violation of the dura (e.g. lumbar puncture). This syndrome can also occur spontaneously and results from the leakage of CSF. We describe three patients who suffered from spontaneous CSF leaks secondary to bony pathology of the cervical spine, and propose that this may be a more common aetiology than originally thought. Often these patients are difficult to manage medically, and surgery may be necessary for symptomatic relief.
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15/35. Intrathecal saline infusion in the treatment of obtundation associated with spontaneous intracranial hypotension: technical case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an increasingly recognized cause of postural headache. However, appropriate management of obtundation caused by intracranial hypotension is not well defined. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old man presented with postural headache followed by rapid decline in mental status. Imaging findings were consistent with the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension, with bilateral subdural hematomas, pachymeningeal enhancement, and caudal displacement of posterior fossa structures and optic chiasm. INTERVENTION: Despite treatment with lumbar epidural blood patch, worsening stupor necessitated intubation and mechanical ventilation. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic myelography of the spine failed to demonstrate the site of cerebrospinal fluid fistula. The enlarging subdural fluid collections were drained, and a ventriculostomy was performed. Postoperatively, the patient remained semicomatose. To restore intraspinal and intracranial pressures, intrathecal infusion of saline was initiated. After several hours of lumbar saline infusion, lumbar and intracranial pressures normalized, and the patient's stupor resolved rapidly. Repeat computed tomographic myelography accomplished via C1-C2 puncture demonstrated a large ventrolateral T1-T3 leak, which was treated successfully with a thoracic epidural blood patch. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated resolution of intracranial hypotension, and the patient was discharged in excellent condition. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension may cause a decline of mental status and require lumbar intrathecal saline infusion to arrest or reverse impending central (transtentorial) herniation. This case demonstrates the use of simultaneous monitoring of lumbar and intracranial pressures to appropriately titrate the infusion and document resolution of intracranial hypotension. Maneuvers aimed at sealing the cerebrospinal fluid fistula then can be performed in a less emergent fashion after the patient's mental status has stabilized.
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16/35. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities.

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a neurologic syndrome of unknown etiology, characterized by features of low cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pressure, postural headache and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities. methods: Four symptomatic cases of SIH presented to our institution over a six-month period. magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed in all four cases. Diagnostic lumbar puncture was done in all except one case. RESULTS: All of the patients on whom lumbar punctures were performed demonstrated low CSF pressure and CSF protein elevation with negative cultures and cytology. Three out of the four patients exhibited MRI findings of diffuse spinal and intracranial pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement and extradural or subdural fluid collections. One patient had no MRI abnormalities despite prominent postural headache and reduced CSF pressure at lumbar puncture. All patients recovered with intravenous fluids and conservative treatment. CONCLUSIONS: magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities are found in most, but not all patients, with SIH. Cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities can be detected even in patients with normal MRI studies. It is important to recognize the variability of imaging results in this usually benign disorder.
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17/35. Intracranial subdural hematoma after resection of a thoracic spinal cord tumor.

    Intracranial subdural hematoma associated with intracranial hypotension is a rare complication of dural puncture and other procedures on the dura. This report describes the case of a 25-year-old man who developed intracranial subdural hematoma after resection of a thoracic spinal cord tumor. Intracranial subdural hematoma could result in severe and permanent neurologic deficit if it remains unrecognized. Severe and prolonged postdural puncture headache should be regarded as a warning sign of an intracranial subdural hematoma, and in those patients early investigation is recommended.
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18/35. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an increasingly recognized syndrome. Postural headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delay in diagnosing this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe a patient with SIH and outline the important clinical and radiographic features of this syndrome. headache due to SIH is similar to headache occurring after lumbar puncture. patients with postural headaches should have brain MRI before lumbar puncture. Meningeal abnormalities with typical clinical features are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. When correctly diagnosed, SIH management, in most cases, is easy and highly effective.
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19/35. Subdural haematoma: a potentially serious consequence of spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is characterised by postural headache and low opening pressure at lumbar puncture without obvious cause. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging often shows small subdural collections without mass effect, dural enhancement, venous sinus dilatation, or downward displacement of the brain. The condition is thought to be benign. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of subdural haematoma as a serious complication of SIH. methods: A prospective survey of all cases of SIH presenting to a large neuroscience unit over a two year period. RESULTS: Nine cases of SIH were seen. Four of these were complicated by acute clinical deterioration with reduced conscious level because of large subdural haematomas requiring urgent neurosurgical drainage. CONCLUSIONS: SIH should not be considered a benign condition. Acute deterioration of patients' clinical status may occur secondary to large subdural haematomas, requiring urgent neurosurgical intervention.
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20/35. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension in a patient with reversible pachymeningeal enhancement and brain descent.

    A 56-year-old woman presented with severe orthostatic headache in association with nausea and vomiting. Lumbar puncture for the patient revealed significantly low cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSF) and the clinical diagnosis of intracranial hypotension syndrome was made. An initial gadolinium-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed diffuse meningeal enhancement as well as brain sagging. No definite CSF leakage was found using radionuclide cisternography. Her headaches abated with proper usage of analgesics, strict bed rest, and intravenous hydration. Follow-up neuroimaging studies showed partially resolved meningeal enhancement 2 months after treatment and complete resolution 6 months after treatment. The temporal changes found on MRI suggest that the pachymeningeal enhancement is reversible in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Moreover, proliferation of meninges is likely to be responsible for this type of delayed resolution phenomenon.
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