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1/177. Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.

    PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. methods: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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2/177. Pitfalls of undetected patent foramen ovale in off-pump cases.

    We describe pitfalls of a hitherto undetected patent foramen ovale during the conduct of an off-bypass coronary revascularization. Manipulation of the heart resulted in right-to-left shunt and severe desaturation requiring institution of cardiopulmonary bypass to close the patent foramen ovale and complete the revascularization.
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ranking = 0.50460410976003
keywords = foramen
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3/177. Pocket infection complicating inadvertent transarterial permanent pacing. Successful percutaneous explantation.

    This report describes a patient admitted for the treatment of a pocket infection occurring 5 months after a dual chamber pacemaker implantation. The ventricular lead had been inadvertently placed into the left ventricle through the arterial system. After careful examination using transesophageal echocardiography and left heart angiogram, successful percutaneous extraction was performed without complication.
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ranking = 0.12045670622689
keywords = ventricle
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4/177. Quantitative assessment of vessel flow integrity for aneurysm surgery. Technical note.

    Quantitative measurement of blood flow in cerebral vessels during aneurysm surgery can help prevent ischemic injury and improve patient outcome. The authors report a case of a superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysm in which perivascular microflow probes were used to measure blood flow quantitatively in both the SCA and the posterior cerebral artery before and after aneurysm clipping. Following aneurysm clipping, blood flow in the SCA was reduced to less than 25% of its initial baseline value. Prompt detection of compromised blood flow gave the surgeon the opportunity to adjust the clip and restore SCA flow to its preclipping value within 5 minutes of initial clip placement. Quantitative vessel-flow measurements were integral to the safe progression of the operation and may have prevented an adverse neurological outcome in this patient. The recommended surgical technique and the principle of operation are described.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = cerebral
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5/177. Biochemical changes related to hypoxia during cerebral aneurysm surgery: combined microdialysis and tissue oxygen monitoring: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: The objective of this study was to monitor brain metabolism on-line during aneurysm surgery, by combining the use of a multiparameter (brain tissue oxygen, brain carbon dioxide, pH, and temperature) sensor with microdialysis (extracellular glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate). The case illustrates the potential value of these techniques by demonstrating the effects of adverse physiological events on brain metabolism and the ability to assist in both intraoperative and postoperative decision-making. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old woman presented with a World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Grade I subarachnoid hemorrhage. angiography revealed a basilar artery aneurysm that was not amenable to coiling, so the aneurysm was clipped. Before the craniotomy was performed, a multiparameter sensor and a microdialysis catheter were inserted to monitor brain metabolism. INTERVENTION: During the operation, the brain oxygen level decreased, in relation to biochemical changes, including the reduction of extracellular glucose and pyruvate and the elevation of lactate and glutamate. These changes were reversible. However, when the craniotomy was closed, a second decrease in brain oxygen occurred in association with brain swelling, which immediately prompted a postoperative computed tomographic scan. The scan demonstrated acute hydrocephalus, requiring external ventricular drainage. The patient made a full recovery. CONCLUSION: The monitoring techniques influenced clinical decision-making in the treatment of this patient. On-line measurement of brain tissue gases and extracellular chemistry has the potential to assist in the perioperative and postoperative management of patients undergoing complex cerebrovascular surgery and to establish the effects of intervention on brain homeostasis.
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ranking = 0.8
keywords = cerebral
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6/177. Intraoperative acute occlusion of aortic bifurcation during extracorporeal circulation.

    A 36-year-old male patient showed a significant decrease of arterial pressure in the lower extremities during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with extracorporeal circulation (ECC). arterial pressure measured in the femoral artery fell to 10-20 mmHg at the end of ECC, whereas in the upper extremities arterial pressure levels were normal. At the end of the surgery a complete ischemia of both lower extremities was observed. We suspected Leriche's syndrome and performed a successful aortic embolectomy through bilateral femoral arteriotomies immediately. An insufficient anticoagulation could be excluded by prolonged "activated clotting time" (ACT), therefore we presumed that the source of embolus was a small aneurysm of the left ventricle. The shape and superficial structure of the extracted embolus, which was partly covered with endocardium, confirmed our suspicion. No complications occurred throughout the postoperative period. On the 10th postoperative day, the patient left our department for postoperative rehabilitation with a normal perfusion of the lower extremities.
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ranking = 0.12045670622689
keywords = ventricle
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7/177. Successful treatment of massive arterial air embolism during open heart surgery.

    We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who suffered a massive arterial air embolism during surgical closure of an atrial septal defect. The risk of permanent neurologic deficits or even fatal outcome is significant (mortality rate, 31%). We successfully treated a proven arterial air embolism with intraoperative (retrograde cerebral perfusion) combined with postoperative procedures (deep barbiturate anesthesia and hyperbaric oxygenation). At discharge the girl had fully recovered from the initial neurologic defects.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = cerebral
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8/177. Complications associated with intraarterial administration of papaverine for vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage--two case reports.

    Complications associated with intraarterial papaverine infusion occurred in two patients treated for vasospasm due to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 42-year-old male with an anterior communicating artery aneurysm underwent craniotomy and aneurysm clipping. Five days after the SAH occurred, angiography demonstrated moderate vasospasm in spite of hypervolemic-hypertensive therapy. During papaverine infusion into the carotid artery, he suffered loss of consciousness due to a seizure for a few minutes. A 61-year-old female with a right internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm underwent clipping. Six days after the SAH occurred, angiography demonstrated severe vasospasm in spite of hypervolemic-hypertensive therapy. angiography performed immediately after papaverine infusion into the carotid artery revealed exacerbation of the vasospasm. Finally she suffered cerebral infarction and died. Complications of intraarterial papaverine infusion are potentially dangerous. We recommend trial administration of papaverine with angiography and neurological examination before full dose infusion to avoid complications.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = cerebral
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9/177. Immediate postoperative thrombolytic therapy: an aggressive strategy for neurologic salvage when cerebral thromboembolism complicates carotid endarterectomy.

    A 42-year-old man with a high-grade left internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis demonstrated on a duplex scan was referred to us. A cerebral arteriogram confirmed a greater than 90% left internal carotid stenosis, but with the unexpected finding of a moderate amount of thrombus in the proximal ICA. He underwent emergent left carotid endarterectomy, but during the operation, only a small amount of thrombus was identified as adherent to the atherosclerotic plaque. he awakened in the operating room with a dense right hemiplegia and aphasia. Immediate reexploration demonstrated a patent endarterectomy site, a distal thromboembolectomy was performed without extraction of thrombus, and urokinase (250,000 Units) was infused into the distal ICA. He reawakened with an unchanged right hemiplegia and aphasia. The patient then underwent an urgent postoperative carotid and cerebral arteriogram that demonstrated an embolus to the middle cerebral artery. he was treated with the superselective infusion of urokinase (500,000 Units), with almost complete resolution of the clot. Over the course of the next 48 hours, the patient made a nearly complete neurologic recovery, and he was discharged from the hospital with only a slight facial droop. At 2 months' follow-up he was completely neurologically healthy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of urokinase administered in the immediate postoperative period in the angiography suite to treat a thromboembolus complicating a carotid endarterectomy.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = cerebral
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10/177. Acute type A aortic dissection: retrograde perfusion with left superior vena cava.

    Retrograde cerebral perfusion with hypothermic circulatory arrest confers additional cerebral protection during repair of type A aortic dissection. We present a 42-year-old man with acute type A aortic dissection and a persistent, left superior vena cava. Cannulation of the right and left superior vena cava is used for retrograde perfusion of both hemispheres with bilateral monitoring of electroencephalogram and somatosensory-evoked potentials during and after the hypothermic circulatory arrest interval.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = cerebral
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