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1/13. Posterior hepatic duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy finally necessitating hepatic resection: case report.

    A case of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy finally necessitating right hepatic lobectomy is reported to re-emphasize the importance of preoperative and intraoperative assessment of the biliary tree. A 47-year-old Japanese woman underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystolithiasis. On postoperative day 5, fever and right hypochondralgia developed, and CT revealed fluid collection at the right hypochondrium. Percutaneous drainage was performed, and subsequent fistulography revealed a communication of the cystic cavity with the right posterior bile duct, which suggested injury of the aberrant hepatic duct. Conservative therapy, including the adaptation of fibrin glue, was performed, but closure of the fistula and cavity was not obtainable. Finally, a right hepatic lobectomy was performed four months after cholecystectomy. In this case, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was unsuccessful preoperatively, and intraoperative cholangiography was not done. This case report re-emphasizes that the preoperative and intraoperative examination of the biliary tree is mandatory to avoid bile duct injury.
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2/13. nitrogen purging of oxygen pipelines: an unusual cause of intraoperative hypoxia.

    Intraoperative hypoxia occurred in two patients during the maintenance of the medical gas system. Engineers were purging oxygen pipelines with nitrogen to remove particulate debris but were unaware of a connection to operating room pipelines. This case illustrates the importance of communication between anesthesia providers and engineers servicing the gas system.
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3/13. Giant temporo-occipital sinus pericranii. A case report.

    A rare case of a giant, temporo-occipital sinus pericranii is presented. A 38-year-old male presented with minor symptoms of headache and heaviness over an enlarging temporo-occipital bone defect. Within the defect a soft, compressible, mass lesion was observed, which varied in size with changes in intracranial pressure. Radiological imaging demonstrated bone erosion around a fluid filled mass, which on angiography communicated via a series of channels with the transverse sinus. A diagnosis of sinus pericranii was made. Due to the risk of future complication the patient elected to undergo surgery, which successfully resected the mass and obliterated the venous communications with the diploic veins and transverse sinus. The classification, aetiology, differential diagnosis, radiological characteristics and management options relating to sinus pericranii are discussed.
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4/13. Reversed portal vein pulsatility on Doppler ultrasound secondary to an iatrogenic mediastinal haematoma.

    The Doppler ultrasound pattern of reversed pulsatile flow (RPF) of the portal vein (PV) is strongly associated with high atrial pressure. Tricuspid regurgitation is considered to be the main cause of RPF in patients with chronic heart disease, but the precise pathomechanism of this PV flow pattern has not yet been resolved. We describe for the first time a RPF of the PV in a young patient with a mediastinal haematoma after inadvertent puncture of the subclavian artery. In this patient, transcutaneous echocardiography demonstrated normal valves without any tricuspid regurgitation as well as normal diameters of the cardiac cavities. The RPF of the PV in this patient resolved spontaneously within 7 days. An increased hepatic outflow resistance with transmission of hepatic artery pulsations across arterioportal communications seems the most likely pathomechanism to explain our finding.
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5/13. Haemodynamic compromise during thoracoscopic/laparoscopic oesophagectomy.

    Minimally invasive oesophagectomy is a relatively new procedure that is performed by means of thoracoscopy and laparoscopy. One stage of the procedure involves creation of a peritoneo-pleural communication in the presence of a pneumoperitoneum. In the case presented, severe hypotension occurred at this point. We believe this was caused by the escape of carbon dioxide from the peritoneal cavity into the right hemithorax, resulting in tension pneumothorax and cardiac tamponade. We believe this to be a predictable complication of this procedure but one that if expected, recognised and correctly managed, should not result in adverse outcomes.
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6/13. Reversal of flow in the ovarian artery during uterine artery embolization.

    uterine artery embolization (UAE) is gaining increasing recognition as an effective treatment alternative to hysterectomy in select patients. As interventional radiologists gain more experience in the treatment of fibroids, new interest is being directed toward arterial communications between the uterine arteries and ovarian arteries. This case report focuses on the potentially serious complication of flow reversal up the ovarian artery into the aorta during UAE.
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7/13. Ventilatory impairment during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    A patient with a recently placed ventriculoperitoneal shunt suffered ventilatory impairment due to decreased thoracic compliance related to massive subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patient recovered uneventfully; however, recently established closed communication between the peritoneal cavity and the subcutaneous space may be a relative contraindication to laparoscopic surgery.
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8/13. Arterial to end-tidal CO2 laparoscopic gradient reversal during pheochromocytoma resection.

    PURPOSE: We report the development of severe intraoperative hypercarbia and a pronounced arterial to end-tidal gradient reversal during laparoscopic pheochromocytoma resection. Although complex physiologic mechanisms may be responsible for this finding, anatomic alterations such as a direct communication between a capnoperitoneum and/or capnothorax and the airways resulting from prior pathology and the type of procedure should also be considered. CLINICAL FEATURES: During anesthesia for laparoscopic pheochromocytoma removal we noticed an abrupt, extensive increase of the end-tidal CO(2) accompanied by a change of the capnographic CO(2) tracing and reversal of the normal arterial-to-end-tidal gradient. These changes consistently disappeared by intermittent deflation of the abdomen and at the end of surgery. A chest x-ray revealed a right-sided loculated pneumothorax with pleural thickening. Peritoneo-thoracic CO(2) tracking and pleural scaring with pulmonary adhesions resulting in a unidirectional communication between the pleural space and airways may best explain the chest x-ray and clinical findings. CONCLUSION: Severe intraoperative hypercarbia and arterial to end-tidal CO(2) gradient reversal represents an intraoperative challenge. The possibility of a direct communication between the pleural space and the bronchial tree should be considered when other etiologies have been excluded. Simple maneuvers such as abdominal de- and re-inflation and analysis of the end-tidal capnographic tracing might aid in the differential diagnosis and management.
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9/13. Thumbtack use for control of presacral bleeding, with description of an instrument for thumbtack application.

    There is well-known difficulty in controlling hemorrhage from presacral vessels. There are reports on the use of thumbtacks to secure hemostasis in the face of presacral hemorrhage. This communication reports the successful use of thumbtacks to establish presacral hemostasis and describes a simple instrument designed to afford easier and more precise anterior sacral application of thumbtacks. The instrument is easy to make. It was devised because of difficulty encountered with manual placement of hemostatic thumbtacks and the absence of totally satisfactory delivery by any of the standard surgical instruments available.
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10/13. aorta-vena cava fistula.

    In 1831 James Syme described the unusual occurrence of an aortocaval fistula in a 22-year-old man with luetic aortitis. This initial report was followed by illustration of this phenomenon in Rokitanski's Book of Pathologic anatomy in 1841 and by Ryle's delineation of an aortocaval fistula on a pathologic specimen placed in Guy's Hospital Museum in 1892. The first series of aortocaval fistulas, cited by Rudolf Matas in 1909, consisted of a collection of 20 cases gathered by Boinet 10 years earlier. Several later reports, including those by Reid in 1925 and by Lehman in 1938, failed to add any additional cases. It was not until 1955 that Boffi presented an additional six patients who had this disorder, none of whom survived. Since that time, more than 100 cases of spontaneous aortocaval fistulas have been documented. This increasing experience has resulted in improved understanding and surgical treatment of these large-vessel arteriovenous communications. Nevertheless, lack of awareness and failure of recognition of this problem continue to impede its successful management. In this review we present two additional illustrative cases, summarize the clinical and pathophysiologic features of aortocaval fistulas, and outline present approaches to treatment.
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