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1/71. Intraoperative loss of auditory function relieved by microvascular decompression of the cochlear nerve.

    BACKGROUND: Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are useful indicators of auditory function during posterior fossa surgery. Several potential mechanisms of injury may affect the cochlear nerve, and complete loss of BAEP is often associated with postoperative hearing loss. We report two cases of intraoperative auditory loss related to vascular compression upon the cochlear nerve. methods: Intra-operative BAEP were monitored in a consecutive series of over 300 microvascular decompressions (MVD) performed in a recent twelve-month period. In two patients undergoing treatment for trigeminal neuralgia, BAEP waveforms suddenly disappeared completely during closure of the dura. RESULTS: The cerebello-pontine angle was immediately re-explored and there was no evidence of hemorrhage or cerebellar swelling. The cochlear nerve and brainstem were inspected, and prominent vascular compression was identified in both patients. A cochlear nerve MVD resulted in immediate restoration of BAEP, and both patients recovered without hearing loss. CONCLUSION: These cases illustrate that vascular compression upon the cochlear nerve may disrupt function, and is reversible with MVD. awareness of this event and recognition of BAEP changes alert the neurosurgeon to a potential reversible cause of hearing loss during posterior fossa surgery.
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2/71. Use of a microvascular Doppler probe to avoid basilar artery injury during endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Technical note.

    basilar artery (BA) injury has been reported in a number of cases as a major complication of third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus. This report describes the deployment of a pulsed-wave microvascular Doppler probe through the endoscope to locate the BA complex and subsequently to select a safe zone for perforation of the third ventricular floor. This procedure is quick and easily learned, and it is hoped that it can decrease the risk of vascular injury during third ventriculostomy.
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keywords = wave
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3/71. Absence of flow velocity waveform changes in uterine arteries after bilateral internal iliac artery ligation.

    A case is reported of bilateral internal iliac artery ligation during cesarean delivery for intractable hemorrhage. uterine artery Doppler flow velocity waveforms were documented before and after the procedure. After the ligation the uterine arteries could still be visualized in the appropriate anatomic location, and no changes in Doppler flow velocity waveforms were documented.
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keywords = wave
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4/71. Airway ignition during CO2 laser laryngeal surgery and high frequency jet ventilation.

    We present a case of a patient submitted for extirpation of a neoplasm of the larynx, by means of carbon dioxide laser surgery. High frequency jet ventilation was applied by means of orotracheal intubation with two Teflon catheters, 2 mm in external diameter and 30 cm in length, attached with three equally placed strips of adhesive paper tape. One catheter was used to inject the jet volume and the other used to measure the airway pressure. The adhesive strips were moistened and FiO2 was lower than 50%. After 30 min using the laser, an airway fire was noticed. ventilation was interrupted and the catheters were removed. The patient was reintubated with an endotracheal tube of 6 mm ID and the surgical procedure was continued until the tumour was removed. Two factors contributed to the airway fire: the ignition of the lowest adhesive strip that had dried and the use of the laser in the mode of continuous pulsation.
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ranking = 201.95148939632
keywords = high frequency, frequency
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5/71. Fatal pulmonary thromboembolism in gastrectomy intraoperative procedures by gastric adenocarcinoma: case report.

    The case of a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma with indication for gastrectomy is reported. The surgery took place without complications. A palliative, subtotal gastrectomy was performed after para-aortic lymph nodes compromised by neoplasm were found, which was confirmed by pathological exam of frozen sections carried out during the intervention. At the end of the gastroenteroanastomosis procedure, the patient began to show intense bradycardia: 38 beats per minute (bpm), arterial hypotension, changes in the electrocardiogram's waveform (upper unlevelling of segment ST), and cardiac arrest. resuscitation maneuvers were performed with temporary success. Subsequently, the patient had another circulatory breakdown and again was recovered. Finally, the third cardiac arrest proved to be irreversible, and the intra-operative death occurred. Necropsy showed massive pulmonary embolism. The medical literature has recommended heparinization of patients, in an attempt to avoid pulmonary thromboembolism following major surgical interventions. However, in the present case, heparinization would have been insufficient to prevent death. This case indicates that it is necessary to develop preoperative propedeutics for diagnosing the presence of venous thrombi with potential to migrate, causing pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). If such thrombi could be detected, preventative measures, such as filter installation in the Cava vein could be undertaken.
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6/71. femoral artery ischemia during spinal scoliosis surgery detected by posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potential monitoring.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of unilateral leg ischemia caused by femoral artery compression detected using posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials during spinal scoliosis instrumentation surgery. OBJECTIVES: To report a rare cause of intraoperative unilateral loss of all posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potential waveforms. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Failure to obtain adequate popliteal fossa, spinal, subcortical, and cortical potentials during posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potential spinal cord monitoring usually results from technical factors or chronic conditions affecting the peripheral nerve. methods: A 16-year-old boy with thoracic scoliosis had normal posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials both before surgery and in the operating room immediately after anesthesia induction and prone positioning on a four-post spinal frame. RESULTS: One hour after the start of surgery, a minimal amplitude reduction of the right popliteal fossa potentials appeared. Fifteen minutes later, the amplitudes of the popliteal fossa, subcortical, and cortical potentials evoked by right posterior tibial nerve stimulation became substantially reduced. Subsequently, all waveforms were lost. Malfunction of the right posterior tibial nerve stimulator was initially suspected, but when proper function was verified, a search for other causes of this loss led to discovery of leg ischemia. The patient was repositioned on the spinal frame, and all posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials waveforms began to reappear 7 minutes later. There was no postoperative clinically detectable complication. CONCLUSIONS: Although technical malfunction should always be suspected when all intraoperative somatosensory-evoked potential waveforms are initially seen and subsequently lost, one should also consider the possibility that intraoperative ischemia due to limb positioning could be the etiology.
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keywords = wave
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7/71. The rate of hydrocele perforation during vasectomy. Is perforation dangerous?

    BACKGROUND: Hydroceles are not uncommon, are often occult, and may be associated with an inguinal hernia. The rate of hydrocele perforation during elective vasectomy has not been reported in the medical literature. Our objective was to estimate the frequency and consequences of hydrocele perforation incidental to vasectomy. methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from a series of patients undergoing vasectomy using the no-scalpel technique for the incidence of complications. A supplementary chart review was done to determine preoperative conditions, and telephone contacts were made if needed to assess later morbidity. RESULTS: We noted 7 perforations in 150 vasectomies. Only one patient had a hydrocele documented preoperatively. Three had histories of inguinal hernia and herniorrhaphy. Five patients had evidence of minor swelling early on, but none had additional morbidity or long-term associated complications. CONCLUSIONS: This small case series of vasectomies had a 4.7% incidence rate of perforated small or occult hydroceles. physicians should be aware of this potentially alarming but apparently minor phenomenon that may accompany vasectomy.
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ranking = 0.72601745571391
keywords = frequency
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8/71. Perioperative deaths: a further comparative review of coroner's autopsies with particular reference to the occurrence of fatal iatrogenic injury.

    INTRODUCTION: In previous triennial reviews of Coroner's perioperative autopsies conducted during the periods 1989 to 1991 and 1992 to 1994, it was observed that the necropsy incidence of such deaths rose from 2% to 2.6% (P < 0.05). Concurrently, the rate of iatrogenic deaths had nearly doubled from 15.2% to 28.8% (P < 0.02). These findings spurred a review of the subsequent triennium (1995 to 1997), in order to monitor the apparent rise in these trends and to study the frequency and occurrence of iatrogenic deaths in relation to the number of invasive procedures performed, as well as during emergency and elective procedures. MATERIALS AND methods: A retrospective (descriptive and comparative) study, comprising a clinico-pathological review of a series of 270 perioperative deaths (defined as deaths occurring during or after invasive therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, up to a week after discharge, and excluding cases of major trauma from suicides, homicides, as well as road and industrial accidents) reported to the Coroner, for which autopsies were conducted at the Department of forensic medicine from 1995 to 1997. RESULTS: The necropsy incidence of 4.4% (270/6074) represented a significant rise over the previous triennia (P < 0.01). As in previous years, there was a predominance of males (M:F = 1.65:1) and middle-aged to elderly patients (range 0 to 92 years, mean 55.8 years, median 63 years), most of whom had died after a variable, but usually brief, postoperative interval [0 to 97, 4.2, 1 day(s)] and a more variable period of hospitalisation (< 1 to 289, 12.6, 7 days). A total of 408 invasive procedures were performed, amounting to an average of 1.5 per patient; 101 patients (37.4%) underwent multiple (> 1) interventions, which were initially classified as elective procedures in 27 cases. There were 66 (24.4%) iatrogenic deaths, of which 2 (0.7%) were due to anaesthetic mishaps; 18/64 iatrogenic deaths, unrelated to anaesthesia, occurred after the first postoperative day. The proportions of such deaths amongst patients subjected to multiple interventions, or initial elective procedures, were more than twice as high as amongst those undergoing single procedures, and those initially classified as emergencies (35.6% versus 16.6% and 33.3% versus 13.2%, respectively; P < 0.01). Only 51/66 (77.3%) iatrogenic deaths received Coroner's verdicts of misadventure; no verdict of criminal negligence was recorded during the period in question. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to have been a steady increase in the number of perioperative deaths reported to the Coroner over the previous triennia (1989 to 1997) for which autopsies were conducted. While this observation may not denote an increase in perioperative morality rates per se, it may be indicative of an increasingly "aggressive" or defensive approach to the clinical management of seriously ill patients, particularly over the past decade. Although the rate of iatrogenic deaths appears to have stabilised, it is too early to say whether this apparent trend will persist in the future. It is perhaps not surprising that the risk of iatrogenic injury appears to increase with the number of interventions performed; however, it is not clear why initial, supposedly elective, interventions should be associated with an apparently greater risk of iatrogenic injury than those classified as emergency procedures. The substantial divergence between the autopsy finding of an iatrogenic death and the corresponding Coroner's verdict of misadventure may be comforting to clinicians, but certainly warrants further examination.
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ranking = 0.72601745571391
keywords = frequency
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9/71. Word deafness after resection of a pineal body tumor in the presence of normal wave latencies of the auditory brain stem response.

    We studied the case of a 48-year-old woman who had resection of a pineal body tumor in terms of postoperative audiological function. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging disclosed partial inferior colliculi destruction and medial geniculate body degeneration. A pure tone audiogram revealed only moderate sensorineural hearing loss, but her speech perception was totally impaired. The binaural sound localization function was also impaired. The auditory brain stem response (ABR) showed waves I, III, and V to have normal latencies. The amplitude of wave III was larger than that of wave V. These results support the view that the waves of the ABR are elicited from multiple sources in the auditory brain stem nuclei and tracts. This case suggests a substantial role for the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body in the processing of speech perception and sound localization.
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ranking = 8
keywords = wave
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10/71. Monocular blindness as a complication of trigeminal radiofrequency rhizotomy.

    PURPOSE: To raise the awareness of the rare complication of monocular blindness resulting from radiofrequency rhizotomy for trigeminal neuralgia. methods: Case series from tertiary referral centers. patients were referred after complaint of loss of vision. RESULTS: We report three patients who had trigeminal neuralgia and underwent treatment by radiofrequency rhizotomy. Each developed complete loss of vision in one eye immediately after the procedure. One patient died of an unrelated cause, and pathologic analysis revealed changes compatible with acute trauma to the right optic nerve. CONCLUSION: Our third case confirms the hypothesis that traumatic optic neuropathy after trigeminal radiofrequency rhizotomy results from malpositioning of the rhizotomy needle through the inferior orbital fissure into the orbital apex rather than the foramen ovale.
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ranking = 5.0821221899974
keywords = frequency
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