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1/19. Endovascular treatment of a portal vein tear during TIPSS.

    During a transjugular portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) procedure a portal vein laceration occurred with subsequent intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A PTFE-covered nitinol stent was successfully placed eliminating the leak and creating a functioning portosystemic shunt. This case demonstrates both the importance of portal vein puncture more than 1 cm from the bifurcation and the necessity of maintaining a stock of available stent-grafts.
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2/19. Delayed recognition of inadvertent gut injury during laparoscopy.

    Bowel injuries, which may occur as a result of the insertion of an insufflation needle or trocar, are a rare complication of laparoscopy. They are generally recognized either immediately or a few days after the operation. We present a case of laparoscopic perforation of the small intestine in a patient who had undergone previous pelvic surgery for an ovarian carcinoma. On ultrasound (US), the patient had multiple hepatic lesions resembling hepatic metastases. To confirm the diagnosis, laparoscopy with guided liver biopsy was performed on the grounds that this procedure is regarded as more appropriate than CT- or US-guided hepatic biopsy. Veress needle and trocar insertion were performed at a proper distance from the abdominal scar. However, the abdominal cavity was not visible after the trocar's insertion due to the unexpected presence of adhesions. This precluded the continuation of the procedure. In the following days, the patient experienced only mild abdominal discomfort. However, 2 weeks after laparoscopy, the patient presented signs of peritoneal reaction and underwent laparotomy. Adhesion-fixing jejunal loops to the anterior abdominal wall were discovered at the site of the trocar puncture. Moreover, two hiatuses of these loops were observed and sutured. The follow-up was uneventful. As this case illustrates, laparoscopic bowel injuries remain an unpredictable event. Recognition of this complication may occur several days after the procedure, as the tamponating effect of adhesions on the jejunal hiatus delays the involvement of the peritoneum.
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3/19. Videolaparoscopic management of percutaneous liver biopsy complications.

    Percutaneous liver biopsy is a routine procedure in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of several liver disorders. mortality and morbidity rates from percutaneous liver biopsy are low. This report of three cases of serious percutaneous liver biopsy complication and their management highlights the role played by videolaparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in two different types of PLB complication: hemobilia and bile peritonitis. In two patients, intrahepatic arteriobiliary fistula developed with gastrointestinal hemorrhage (hemobilia). Both were treated with cholecystectomy and ligation of the right branch of the hepatic artery. In the third case, the percutaneous liver biopsy needle punctured the gallbladder, leading to bile peritonitis and acute abdomen, and the patient underwent videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy with aspiration and lavage of the abdominal cavity. Videolaparoscopic procedures are an adequate alternative for the management of serious percutaneous liver biopsy complications such as hemobilia and bile peritonitis. The advantages of a videolaparoscopy include low morbidity rates, quick recovery, good cosmetic result, and ability to resolve the complications of percutaneous liver biopsy.
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4/19. Reversed portal vein pulsatility on Doppler ultrasound secondary to an iatrogenic mediastinal haematoma.

    The Doppler ultrasound pattern of reversed pulsatile flow (RPF) of the portal vein (PV) is strongly associated with high atrial pressure. Tricuspid regurgitation is considered to be the main cause of RPF in patients with chronic heart disease, but the precise pathomechanism of this PV flow pattern has not yet been resolved. We describe for the first time a RPF of the PV in a young patient with a mediastinal haematoma after inadvertent puncture of the subclavian artery. In this patient, transcutaneous echocardiography demonstrated normal valves without any tricuspid regurgitation as well as normal diameters of the cardiac cavities. The RPF of the PV in this patient resolved spontaneously within 7 days. An increased hepatic outflow resistance with transmission of hepatic artery pulsations across arterioportal communications seems the most likely pathomechanism to explain our finding.
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5/19. Vascular complications of the intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation.

    From September 1994 to December 2002, 6,274 cardiosurgery operations were performed at the Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, czech republic. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) was applied in 192 cases (3.1%). From this group of 192 counterpulsated patients 103 were successfully treated (53.6%); 89 counterpulsated patients (46.4%) died from the surgical procedure (30-day mortality rate). In 5 cases (2.6%) from the group of 192, the IABP was introduced before the operation. Ischemic changes of the limb were observed in 11 cases (5.7%). Significant bleeding occurred at the site of puncture in 6 cases (3.1%). dissection of the femoral and iliac arteries was found in 2 patients (1.0%), perforation of the iliac artery in 1 case (0.5%). In 2 cases (1.0%) the balloon was led into the venous system. In case report No. 1 an introduction of the balloon under a sclerotic plaque of the descending aorta and iliac artery is described. In case report No. 2 a placement of the balloon in the venous bloodstream is reported.
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6/19. ST-segment elevation induced during the transseptal procedure for radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    We report two cases of transient coronary artery ischemia manifested as chest discomfort with ST-segment elevation in inferior leads during the transseptal procedure for radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. This unexpected complication was resolved by intravenous administration of nitrates. All patients exhibited normal coronary arteries in angiography. A neurally mediated pathway activated by the mechanical effects of the transseptal puncture on the interatrial vagal network leading to coronary artery spasm may be considered as a possible explanation of this phenomenon. Coronary artery embolism following the transseptal procedure represents a different underlying mechanism.
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7/19. Contralateral tension pneumo/hemothorax resulting from left subclavian vein cannulation under general anesthesia.

    A patient had a subclavian vein catheter placed under general endotracheal anesthesia with positive pressure ventilation. During placement, the superior vena cava, pleura, and pulmonary tissue were punctured, resulting in a tension pneumo/hemothorax, the detection of which was complicated by its slow onset and unusual location. The lesion required an emergent thoracotomy for repair.
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8/19. aneurysm of the dilatation balloon catheter: an unusual complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    We present herein a previously unreported complication of an aneurysm developing in a balloon dilatation catheter used to dilate a track prior to percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Direct needle puncture of the balloon was required for removal of the catheter.
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9/19. radial nerve damage as a complication of elbow arthroscopy.

    Posterior interosseous nerve damage following elbow arthroscopy occurred in a 20-year-old athlete. The course of the radial nerve brings it in proximity to the puncture site when the dorsoradial approach is selected. This case emphasizes the importance of careful attention to vital structures if the complication of a posterior interosseous nerve syndrome is to be avoided.
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10/19. Anaesthetic experience with percutaneous lithotripsy. A review of potential and actual complications.

    Percutaneous lithotripsy has evolved over the last several years as a procedure for removing renal calculi via percutaneous puncture of the renal collecting system. This article reviews our initial anaesthetic experience with 48 procedures and identifies both actual and potential complications. The most significant complication identified is instillation of large volumes of irrigation fluid into the retroperitoneal space. Two cases of metabolic acidosis and abdominal distension are presented. One responded to treatment while the other progressed to a fatal disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Recommendations to prevent this are given.
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