Cases reported "Iron Overload"

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1/4. Hepatic iron overload in aceruloplasminaemia.

    We report the case of a 52 year old male with diabetes mellitus and long standing evidence of hepatic iron excess. Initially considered to have haemochromatosis, this patient was reevaluated when hepatic iron stores were found to be unaffected by a prolonged course of weekly phlebotomy. The development of neurological disease prompted diagnostic consideration of aceruloplasminaemia, which we confirmed by demonstration of a novel frameshift mutation in the ceruloplasmin gene. Our inability to resolve the patient's iron overload by regular phlebotomy is consistent with recent animal studies indicating an essential role for ceruloplasmin in cellular iron efflux. Evaluation of this case underscores the clinical relevance of aceruloplasminaemia in the differential diagnosis of hepatic iron overload and provides insight into the pathogenetic mechanisms of hepatocellular iron storage and efflux.
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2/4. Iron-mobilizing properties of the gadolinium-DTPA complex: clinical and experimental observations.

    BACKGROUND: gadolinium (Gd) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are considered to be safe in patients with impaired renal function. Our study investigates a mechanism of severe iron intoxication with life-threatening serum iron levels in a haemodialysis patient following MRI with Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) administration. His previous history was remarkable for multiple blood transfusions and biochemical evidence of iron overload. We hypothesized that Gd-DTPA may have an iron-mobilizing effect in specific conditions of iron overload combined with prolonged exposure to the agent. methods: For the in vitro study, Gd-DTPA was added to mice liver homogenate and iron metabolism parameters were measured after incubation in comparison with the same samples incubated with saline only. For the in vivo study, an experimental model of acute renal failure in iron-overloaded rats was designed. Previously iron-overloaded and normally fed rats underwent bilateral nephrectomy by renal pedicle ligation, followed by Gd-DTPA or saline injection. Iron and iron saturation levels were checked before and 24 h after Gd-DTPA or vehicle administration. RESULTS: Significant mobilization of iron from mice liver tissue homogenate in mixtures with Gd in vitro was seen in the control (saline) and in the experimental (Gd) groups (513 /-99.1 vs 1117.8 /-360.8 microg/dl, respectively; P<0.05). Administration of Gd-DTPA to iron-overloaded rats after renal pedicle ligation caused marked elevation of serum iron from baseline 143 /-3.4 to 570 /-8 microg/dl (P<0.0001). There were no changes of the named parameter, either in iron-overloaded anuric rats after saline injection or in normal diet uraemic animals, following Gd-DTPA administration. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of iron overload and lack of adequate clearance of Gd chelates may cause massive liberation of iron with dangerous elevation of free serum iron. It is highly recommended that after Gd contrast study, end-stage renal disease patients with probable iron overload should undergo prompt and intensive haemodialysis for prevention of this serious complication.
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3/4. Identification of a human mutation of DMT1 in a patient with microcytic anemia and iron overload.

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is a transmembrane protein crucial for duodenal iron absorption and erythroid iron transport. DMT1 function has been elucidated largely in studies of the mk mouse and the Belgrade rat, which have an identical single nucleotide mutation of this gene that affects protein processing, stability, and function. These animals exhibit hypochromic microcytic anemia due to impaired intestinal iron absorption, and defective iron utilization in red cell precursors. We report here the first human mutation of DMT1 identified in a female with severe hypochromic microcytic anemia and iron overload. This homozygous mutation in the ultimate nucleotide of exon 12 codes for a conservative E399D amino acid substitution; however, its pre-dominant effect is preferential skipping of exon 12 during processing of pre-messenger rna (mRNA). The lack of full-length mRNA would predict deficient iron absorption in the intestine and deficient iron utilization in erythroid precursors; however, unlike the animal models of DMT1 mutation, the patient is iron overloaded. This does not appear to be due to up-regulation of total DMT1 mRNA. DMT1 protein is easily detectable by immunoblotting in the patient's duodenum, but it is unclear whether the protein is properly processed or targeted.
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4/4. Microcytic anemia and hepatic iron overload in a child with compound heterozygous mutations in DMT1 (SCL11A2).

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mediates apical iron uptake in duodenal enterocytes and iron transfer from the transferrin receptor endosomal cycle into the cytosol in erythroid cells. Both mk mice and Belgrade rats, which carry an identical DMT1 mutation, exhibit severe microcytic anemia at birth and defective intestinal iron use and erythroid iron use. We report the hematologic phenotype of a child, compound heterozygote for 2 DMT1 mutations, who was affected by severe anemia since birth and showed hepatic iron overload. The novel mutations were a 3-bp deletion in intron 4 (c.310-3_5del CTT) resulting in a splicing abnormality and a C>T transition at nucleotide 1246(p. R416C). A striking reduction of DMT1 protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was demonstrated by Western blot analysis. The proband required blood transfusions until erythropoietin treatment allowed transfusion independence when hemoglobin levels between 75 and 95 g/L (7.5 and 9.5 g/dL) were achieved. Hematologic data of this patient at birth and in the first years of life strengthen the essential role of DMT1 in erythropoiesis. The early onset of iron overload indicates that, as in animal models, DMT1 is dispensable for liver iron uptake, whereas its deficiency in the gut is likely bypassed by the up-regulation of other pathways of iron use.
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