Cases reported "Ischemia"

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1/13. Microvascular submandibular gland transfer for severe cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Free submandibular salivary gland transfer was investigated as a surgical method for the treatment of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. In an animal model, we examined the tolerance of warm ischemia of the submandibular gland. After temporary interruption of the blood supply (1 to 6 hours), the morphologic changes in the submandibular gland were analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically in 41 rabbits. From 1.5 hours ischemia onward, an increasing structural damage of the parenchyma with emphasis on the secretory cells was seen. Six hours of ischemia caused total necrosis of the salivary gland. Our clinical experience includes 24 highly selected patients suffering from keratoconjunctivitis sicca, in whom we transferred 31 autologous submandibular glands to the temple for permanent autologous tear substitution within the past 4 years. The glands were implanted into a pocket prepared in the temporalis muscle, and the nourishing vessels were anastomosed to the superficial temporal artery and vein. The submandibular duct was implanted into the upper lateral conjunctival fornix. The transferred glands were left denervated. In addition to the clinical examination, scintigraphy with Tc 99m pertechnetate was used to document the graft's viability after the transfer. Viable incorporation with longstanding secretory function occurred in 26 of the 30 transplanted denervated salivary glands. The resulting lubrication of the treated eyes was irregular for up to 3 months in almost even case. One year after surgery, all patients with a viable transplant developed at least occasional epiphora, which was surgically managed by reducing the size of the graft in 10 patients. No severe side effects were seen in this series. The ophthalmologic evaluation of the method included the assessment of dry eye symptoms and of the volume and quality of ocular lubrication (Schirmer test, fluorescein break-up time), the pathology of the ocular surface (rose bengal staining), and the need for pharmaceutical tear substitutes. One year after surgery, 18 of 27 cases assessed were judged as significantly improved by these tests.
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2/13. Protective effect of steroids on liver ischemia.

    Occlusion of the afferent liver circulation for variable periods of time would be advantageous to temporarily control bleeding from profound lacerations or during extensive resections. Because of its low tolerance to ischemia we attempted to protect the liver with steroids during inflow occlusion. Total hepatic ischemia was produced in rabbits by ligating the portal triad and gastrohepatic ligament for 30 minutes. A 10 per cent survival was obtained in untreated controls whereas pre-treatment with methylprednisolone improved survival to 100 per cent. methylprednisolone injection after occlusion improved survival only to 57 per cent. There were profound pathohistologic and electron microscopic changes in untreated controls. In animals treated with methylprednisolone either before or after occlusion changes were minimal or absent. This treatment was used in four trauma patients in whom occlusion of the liver inflow was carried out for various periods of time. Even though no significant statement can be made from such small group, the early postoperative course was remarkably smooth and stable. Methylprednisoline protects the liver during warm ischemia, especially if given before occlusion, and decreases the mortality from this maneuver in experimental animals.
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3/13. Percutaneous transcatheter implantation of an aortic valve prosthesis for calcific aortic stenosis: first human case description.

    BACKGROUND: The design of a percutaneous implantable prosthetic heart valve has become an important area for investigation. A percutaneously implanted heart valve (PHV) composed of 3 bovine pericardial leaflets mounted within a balloon-expandable stent was developed. After ex vivo testing and animal implantation studies, the first human implantation was performed in a 57-year-old man with calcific aortic stenosis, cardiogenic shock, subacute leg ischemia, and other associated noncardiac diseases. Valve replacement had been declined for this patient, and balloon valvuloplasty had been performed with nonsustained results. methods AND RESULTS: With the use of an antegrade transseptal approach, the PHV was successfully implanted within the diseased native aortic valve, with accurate and stable PHV positioning, no impairment of the coronary artery blood flow or of the mitral valve function, and a mild paravalvular aortic regurgitation. Immediately and at 48 hours after implantation, valve function was excellent, resulting in marked hemodynamic improvement. Over a follow-up period of 4 months, the valvular function remained satisfactory as assessed by sequential transesophageal echocardiography, and there was no recurrence of heart failure. However, severe noncardiac complications occurred, including a progressive worsening of the leg ischemia, leading to leg amputation with lack of healing, infection, and death 17 weeks after PHV implantation. CONCLUSIONS: Nonsurgical implantation of a prosthetic heart valve can be successfully achieved with immediate and midterm hemodynamic and clinical improvement. After further device modifications, additional durability tests, and confirmatory clinical implantations, PHV might become an important therapeutic alternative for the treatment of selected patients with nonsurgical aortic stenosis.
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4/13. Ischemic macular edema. Recognition and favorable natural history in branch vein occlusion.

    Eyes with macular edema caused by retinal branch vein occlusion underwent masked evaluation of fluorescein angiography to determine complete macular perfusion vs incomplete macular perfusion (capillary dropout, ischemia). Cases evaluated as incomplete macular perfusion showed a greater frequency of improvement (91%) in visual acuity than did perfused cases (29%) (P = .003) after a mean follow-up of 39 months. Ischemic edema is often transient, and is associated with a good outcome in visual acuity (median final visual acuity was 20/30). Perfused macular edema has a poorer prognosis for visual acuity (median final visual acuity was 20/80). Macular ischemia is usually associated with a broken foveal capillary ring. Previous animal research on ischemic brain edema has shown that following brain ischemia, an intracellular and an extracellular hypertonic environment lead to intracellular and extracellular edema (cytotoxic edema), which is often followed by vascular protein leakage (vasogenic edema). A similar occurrence in ischemic retina could explain the transient edema reported herein, with good outcome in visual acuity following the spontaneous resolution of edema.
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5/13. Mast cell chymase in the ischemic kidney of severe unilateral renovascular hypertension.

    Chymase degrades angiotensin I (AI) to form angiotensin ii (AII), probably constituting a bypass of the renin-angiotensin cascade. Chymase activity increases in some vascular diseases. In the kidney, an increase in chymase activity was reported in an animal model of ischemic kidney of renovascular hypertension (RVH); however, no such evidence has been provided in humans. We treated a 64-year-old patient with severe unilateral RVH and atherosclerosis, for whom removal of the ischemic kidney was the only option. Using immunohistochemical staining, we investigated chymase activity in the removed kidney and associated artery and vein. An increase in chymase activity, together with mast cells infiltrating the interstitium, was observed where interstitial fibrosis was seen. In the renal artery, where severe atherosclerosis was seen, and also in the vein, mast cell infiltration in the adventitia was accompanied by chymase. The captopril test showed an increase in serum aldosterone level, with a concomitant increase in plasma renin activity and decrease in blood pressure. Because the decrease in blood pressure implies a decrease in circulatory AII levels, it is plausible that in this patient, chymase had a role in AII formation in the adrenal gland to stimulate aldosterone secretion. Thus, by means of captopril, AI levels increased, and chymase may have produced AII in loci tissues, which, in turn, stimulated aldosterone secretion. This is the first report of an increase in chymase activity in the interstitium of an ischemic kidney and renal artery and vein in a patient with RVH and atherosclerosis.
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6/13. Reversal of the vasospastic component of lupus vasculopathy by infusion of prostaglandin E1.

    The responses of 3 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and progressive digital ischemia to intravenous prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) were studied prospectively in an open 3-day trial. All patients were unresponsive to corticosteroids, one had vasculitis proven by biopsy. Digital ischemia diminished in all 3 patients. In one patient, angiograms documented reappearance of a previously obstructed deep palmar arch. Vasospasm plays a role in the outcome of SLE vasculitis even in the absence of Raynaud's phenomenon. As suggested by animal models of necrotizing and leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and by case reports, intravenous PGE1 may be a relatively nontoxic, adjunctive treatment for vasculitis.
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7/13. Acute regional vascular insufficiency after jellyfish envenomation.

    Three cases of jellyfish envenomation which occurred in the indian ocean and the Andaman Sea are reported. In each instance the stinging occurred on the upper extremities, and impaired the circulation to the stung limb(s), with absent distal arterial pulses, regional cyanosis, and the threat of distal gangrene. One of the patients is seriously and permanently handicapped, with bilateral upper-limb numbness and paresis; another patient has permanent sensory loss; the third patient, who also had brachial-artery narrowing that was demonstrated by angiography, made an uneventful recovery. The first two patients underwent surgical fasciotomy, whereas surgical exploration was performed on the third patient. Reduced blood flow in the major arteries of the limbs was observed directly in each case. Further, the arterial segment that primarily was affected, in each case, appeared to be that which underlay the actual site of the sting. All patients were young persons with no previous history of vascular disease. These cases corroborate the vascular and neurogenic injury, which previously have been reported in experimental animals and in human patients, that may result from jellyfish venoms.
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8/13. Ischemic injury to enteric free flaps: an experimental study in the dog.

    Enteric free flaps have proven to be useful for reconstructing the cervical esophagus. Although jejunum is favored, the rationale for this is not at all clear. We have postulated that resistance to warm ischemia varies in different regions of the gut. An experiment was carried out in 10 mongrel dogs in which 10-cm segments of proximal, middle, and distal small bowel were isolated on single vascular pedicles. In each portion of the gut there were three segments: a control, a segment subjected to 60 minutes of warm ischemia, and a segment subjected to 120 minutes of warm ischemia. The following day each animal was reexplored, and the viability of bowel segments was assessed visually and with fluorescein. All control segments were viable at 24 hours. Twenty segments were subjected to 1 hour of warm ischemia, and all but two were viable. Nineteen gut segments were subjected to 2 hours of warm ischemia. Seven of eight proximal segments were viable, two of five midsegments were viable, and zero of six distal segments were viable. survival in the distal portion compared to the proximal portion was significantly less (p less than 0.01). It appears from this study that isolated distal small bowel segments are less resistant to warm ischemia than proximal segments.
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9/13. Extensive gangrene of the bowel after haemorrhagic shock: a case report.

    A 20-year-old man presented with an acute abdominal condition within 15 hours after having sustained severe extra-abdominal injuries with associated hypovolaemic shock. At laparotomy virtually the whole bowel was found to be ischaemic and perforation had occurred at the site of maximum ischaemia. No trauma to the bowel, mesenteric vessels or any other abdominal organ was noted, and it was concluded that the ischaemia had resulted from a prolonged splanchic vasospasm in an attempt to compensate for hypovolaemic shock. The condition is well recognized in animals, but has rarely been recorded in humans. Early resuscitation of the shocked patient is mandatory in order to prevent not only renal shutdown but also mesenteric ischaemia. It is possible that some patients who suffer from 'irreversible shock' may develop endotoxaemia owing to the absorption of toxins from partially ischaemic bowel which does not proceed to frank gangrene.
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10/13. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein is available for diagnosis of intestinal ischaemia: immunochemical analysis of two patients with ischaemic intestinal diseases.

    Mesenteric infarction and other acute ischaemic intestinal diseases are still a challenging diagnostic problem. Based on animal experiments, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), which is uniquely localised to the bowel, has recently been proposed as a new serum marker for intestinal ischaemia. This paper reports on two cases with acute intestinal ischaemic diseases, and the measurement of serum I-FABP by western blot analysis. The concentrations of ordinary serum markers were normal and the bowel necrosis was not diagnosed until surgical exploration. Immunochemical analysis showed that the I-FABP concentrations in the patients' serum samples were high at the time of admission, and that I-FABP was undetectable in the samples obtained after bowel resection and in healthy control subjects. This paper suggests that I-FABP is released into the circulation in the acute phase of intestinal ischaemia and that I-FABP can be used in establishing the diagnosis of ischaemic intestinal diseases.
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