Cases reported "Ischemia"

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1/194. sympathetic nervous system and pain: a clinical reappraisal.

    The target article discusses various aspects of the relationship between the sympathetic system and pain. To this end, the patients under study are divided into three groups. In the first group, called "reflex sympathetic dystrophy" (RSD), the syndrome can be characterized by a triad of autonomic, motor, and sensory symptoms, which occur in a distally generalized distribution. The pain is typically felt deeply and diffusely, has an orthostatic component, and is suppressed by the ischemia test. Under those circumstances, the pain is likely to respond to sympatholytic interventions. In a second group, called "sympathetically maintained pain" (SMP) syndrome, the principal symptoms are spontaneous pain, which is felt superficially and has no orthostatic component, and allodynia. These symptoms, typically confined to the zone of a lesioned nerve, may also be relieved by sympathetic blocks. Since the characteristics of the pain differ between RSD and SMP, the underlying kind of sympathetic-sensory coupling may also vary between these cases. A very small third group of patients exhibits symptoms of both RSD and SMP. The dependence or independence of pain on sympathetic function reported in most published studies seems to be questionable because the degree of technical success of the block remains uncertain. Therefore, pain should not be reported as sympathetic function independent until the criteria for a complete sympathetic block have been established and satisfied.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve, block
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2/194. Radicular pain can be a symptom of elevated intracranial pressure.

    We report two patients with leptomeningeal metastatic disease, one from breast cancer and the other from a spinal cord glioma, who developed episodic elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), each episode accompanied by the gradual onset of severe spine and radicular pain. Symptoms of pain promptly and completely resolved with opening of the on-off valve of each patient's ventriculoperitoneal shunt. It is theorized that the patients' radicular pain was caused by nerve root ischemia secondary to elevated ICP.
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ranking = 0.48565414683312
keywords = nerve
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3/194. Surgical treatment of vascular lesions of the spinal cord.

    Paravertebral block and resection of upper thoracic sympathetic ganglions were performed on cases in which vascular disturbance of the spinal cord was considered partly responsible. Block was performed in 14 cases and clinical improvement was seen in 10 cases out of them while resection was considered effective in 2 out of 3 cases. The evoked EMG of patients was assumed recovery of a part of synaptic function in the ischemic cord after the block. On the other hand, the skin temperature of the lower extremity did not show considerable change and this supports the view that the restoration of clinical picture was not due to the improvement of the periphral circulation of extremities. From these observations, it would be well presumed that favorable effect of sympathectomy consists partly in the improvement of vascular disturbance of the spinal cord.
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ranking = 0.34289723544458
keywords = block
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4/194. Implantable spinal cord stimulator to treat the ischemic manifestations of thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease).

    thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) is a segmental inflammatory vasculitis that involves the small-sized and medium-sized arteries, veins, and nerves. It is causally related to tobacco use. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the presence of distal arterial disease in individuals who smoke and in whom other disease entities have been excluded. The most effective treatment for Buerger's disease is smoking cessation. Without strict adherence to tobacco avoidance, disease progression is likely. methods to control ischemic pain include medications, sympathectomy, or surgical revascularization. The effect of sympathectomy is unpredictable, and the chances of a successful revascularization procedure are rare because distal target vessels often are extensively diseased. Herein, we describe a patient whose condition did not respond to the usual conservative therapy but did respond dramatically to the implantation of a permanent spinal cord stimulator. Although these devices have been used for more than 20 years in various other peripheral arterial diseases, their use in Buerger's disease has been limited.
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ranking = 0.48565414683312
keywords = nerve
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5/194. Natural interferon therapy: optic nerve ischemic damage?

    The purpose of this study was the evaluation of retinal abnormalities during a treatment with natural interferon (IFN-alpha for chronic hepatitis c. Retinal hemorrhages and optic disk edema were found in a 40-year-old woman during IFN-alpha therapy. The disk edema and retinopathy resolved after the INF was discontinued. Although retinal abnormalities correlated with IFN therapy have been described recently by some authors, the pathogenesis is still unclear. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurring in a patient treated with IFN is a probable complication of the therapy.
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ranking = 1.9426165873325
keywords = nerve
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6/194. 'Shared spinal cord' scenario: paraplegia following abdominal aortic surgery under combined general and epidural anaesthesia.

    Serious neurological complications of abdominal aortic vascular surgery are rare but devastating for all involved. When epidural blockade is part of the anaesthetic technique such complications may be attributed to needles, catheters or drugs. We present a patient who developed paraplegia following an elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Continuous epidural blockade was part of the anaesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia. In this case the spinal cord damage was explained by ischaemia caused by the aortic surgery. This event has made us aware of a rare complication associated with abdominal aortic surgery and highlighted safety aspects of epidural anaesthesia in such patients.
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ranking = 0.34289723544458
keywords = block
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7/194. Intraoperative SSEP detection of ulnar nerve compression or ischemia in an obese patient: a unique complication associated with a specialized spinal retraction system.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of peripheral nerve compression caused by a specialized spinal retraction system, the Thompson-Farley retractor system, that most likely would not have been detected without intraoperative monitoring of the ulnar nerve. DESIGN: Bilateral median and peroneal nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were monitored continuously during a C5 corpectomy, as was core body temperature. RESULTS: Within minutes after cervical soft-tissue retraction, the left ulnar nerve SSEP began to decline in amplitude. peroneal nerve SSEPs were normal throughout the surgery; core body temperature remained at 36 degrees /- 0.2 degrees C. After much effort to reposition the patient, the SSEPs returned to baseline and the Thompson-Farley system was replaced by a self-retracting system. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of peripheral nerve compression caused by the Thompson-Farley retractor system. Even with careful positioning on the operating table, obese patients may be particularly at risk for upper arm compression. Continuous monitoring of SSEPs is suggested to prevent postoperative morbidity.
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ranking = 4.8565414683312
keywords = nerve
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8/194. The diagnostic challenge of occult large vessel ischemia of the retina and choroid.

    Vascular occlusions of the retina and choroid can cause severe visual loss. These occlusions can occur as a result of systemic disease or after surgery. In most cases, the retinal appearance provides evidence of ischemia as the cause of visual loss. On occasion, however, clinical examination shows no objective signs of vascular occlusion, and this can lead the clinician to suspect optic nerve pathology as the cause of visual loss. This paper outlines some of the diagnostic criteria, clinical findings, and ancillary studies that can be used to differentiate between occult occlusion of the retina or choroid and optic nerve disease.
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ranking = 0.97130829366625
keywords = nerve
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9/194. Vasospasmus: a rare manifestation of homocystinuria.

    We report about a patient suffering from multiple spastic stenoses of varying degree of both iliac arteries and from occlusion of the left tibiofibular trunc. Laboratory investigations revealed increased levels of homocysteine and the diagnosis of homocystinuria was confirmed by fibroblast cell culture. The spasms responded well to vasodilative therapy with nitroglycerine, molsidomine (cGMP mediated) and prostaglandine E1 but not with nifedipine (Ca influx blocker). Our review of literature demonstrated that this arterial spastic abnormality is a very rare complication in patients suffering from homocystinuria.
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ranking = 0.17144861772229
keywords = block
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10/194. femoral artery ischemia during spinal scoliosis surgery detected by posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potential monitoring.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of unilateral leg ischemia caused by femoral artery compression detected using posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials during spinal scoliosis instrumentation surgery. OBJECTIVES: To report a rare cause of intraoperative unilateral loss of all posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potential waveforms. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Failure to obtain adequate popliteal fossa, spinal, subcortical, and cortical potentials during posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potential spinal cord monitoring usually results from technical factors or chronic conditions affecting the peripheral nerve. methods: A 16-year-old boy with thoracic scoliosis had normal posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials both before surgery and in the operating room immediately after anesthesia induction and prone positioning on a four-post spinal frame. RESULTS: One hour after the start of surgery, a minimal amplitude reduction of the right popliteal fossa potentials appeared. Fifteen minutes later, the amplitudes of the popliteal fossa, subcortical, and cortical potentials evoked by right posterior tibial nerve stimulation became substantially reduced. Subsequently, all waveforms were lost. Malfunction of the right posterior tibial nerve stimulator was initially suspected, but when proper function was verified, a search for other causes of this loss led to discovery of leg ischemia. The patient was repositioned on the spinal frame, and all posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials waveforms began to reappear 7 minutes later. There was no postoperative clinically detectable complication. CONCLUSIONS: Although technical malfunction should always be suspected when all intraoperative somatosensory-evoked potential waveforms are initially seen and subsequently lost, one should also consider the possibility that intraoperative ischemia due to limb positioning could be the etiology.
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ranking = 5.8278497619975
keywords = nerve
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