Cases reported "Isochromosomes"

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1/123. Giant cell tumor of the sternum. Report of a case with a 17q isochromosome.

    We report a case of giant cell tumor of the manubrium with radiological evidence of aggressiveness. Few cases of giant cell tumor of the sternum have been published. Extensive surgery offers the best hopes of recovery. Cytogenetic studies evidenced several clonal abnormalities including a 17q isochromosome. The TP53 suppressor gene is located at 17q13.1. Whether loss of one of the TP53 alleles may have contributed to the aggressive behavior of our patient's tumor is discussed.
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keywords = chromosome
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2/123. Uniparental isodisomy resulting from 46,XX,i(1p),i(1q) in a woman with short stature, ptosis, micro/retrognathia, myopathy, deafness, and sterility.

    We report on a 43-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation because of minor facial anomalies, myopathy, sterility, short stature, hearing loss, downward slant of palpebral fissures, bilateral ptosis, severe micro/retrognathia, high arched palate, and scoliosis. Cytogenetic analyses utilizing GTG/CBG bandings showed presence of one i(1p) and one i(1q) without normal chromosome 1 homologues. fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed hybridization to only two chromosomes, consistent with the G-banded interpretation of i(1p) and i(1q). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of isochromosomes 1p and 1q replacing the two normal chromosome 1s. Molecular investigations using markers for chromosome 1 showed inheritance of only one set of paternal alleles and absence of any maternal alleles in the patient. The adverse phenotype of the patient may be due to one or more recessive mutations, genomic imprinting, or a combination of both.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chromosome
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3/123. Investigation of two cases of paternal disomy 13 suggests timing of isochromosome formation and mechanisms leading to uniparental disomy.

    uniparental disomy (UPD) is the abnormal inheritance of two copies of a chromosome from the same parent. Possible mechanisms for UPD include trisomy rescue, monosomy rescue, gametic complementation, and somatic recombination. Most of these mechanisms can involve rearranged chromosomes, particularly isochromosomes and Robertsonian translocations. Both maternal and paternal UPD have been reported for most of the acrocentric chromosomes. However, only UPD for chromosomes 14 and 15 show an apparent imprinting effect. Herein, we present two cases of paternal UPD 13 involving isochromosomes. Both cases were referred for UPD studies due to the formation of a de novo rea(13q13q). Case 2 was complicated by the segregation of a familial rob(13q14q) of maternal origin. Both propositi were phenotypically normal at the time of examination. Polymorphic marker analysis in Case 1 showed the distribution of alleles of markers along chromosome 13 to be complete isodisomy, consistent with an isochromosome. This rearrangement could have occurred either meiotically, without recombination, or mitotically. A likely mechanism for UPD in this case is monosomy rescue, through postzygotic formation of the isochromosome. In Case 2 the distribution of proximal alleles indicated an isochromosome, but recombination was evident. Thus, this isochromosome must have formed prior to or during meiosis I. A likely mechanism for UPD in this case is gametic complementation, since the mother carries a rob(13q14q) and is at risk of producing aneuploid gametes. However, trisomy rescue of a trisomy 13 conceptus cannot be completely excluded. Given that both cases were phenotypically normal, these data further support that paternal UPD 13 does not have an adverse phenotypic outcome and, thus, does not show an apparent imprinting effect.
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ranking = 3
keywords = chromosome
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4/123. Parental origin of the isochromosome 12p in Pallister-Killian syndrome: molecular analysis of one patient and review of the reported cases.

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including pigmentary skin changes, mental retardation, and the mosaic presence of a tissue-limited isochromosome 12p [i(12p)]. Mechanism(s) of formation and parental origin of the isochromosome are not well understood. In this study, microsatellite dna markers of chromosome 12p were used to identify the parental origin of the extra chromosome in an 8-year-old previously reported patient with PKS. The i(12p) was found to be maternally inherited. Reported cases of PKS where the parental origin of the i(12p) was determined were also reviewed. In all the cases, with one exception, the errors were found to be maternal in origin. Premeiotic mitotic error may be the most likely mechanism for i(12p) formation in this syndrome.
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ranking = 1.6
keywords = chromosome
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5/123. Pure trisomy 10p involving an isochromosome 10p.

    We report a child with trisomy 10p due to a translocation of the long arm of chromosome 10 to the short arm of chromosome 14 and isochromosome formation of 10p [46,XX,i(10)(p10),der(14)t(10;14)(q10;p10)]. Most reported cases of trisomy 10p involve double segmental imbalance. In contrast, the clinical features described in the current case represent pure trisomy 10p and, thus, delineate the 10p trisomy syndrome phenotype. Mechanisms of the chromosomal rearrangements in this case are suggested.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = chromosome
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6/123. Formation of supernumerary euchromatic short arm isochromosomes: parent and cell stage of origin in new cases and review of the literature.

    In order to get insight in the formation of isochromosomes we analysed different supernumerary euchromatic short arm isochromosomes for the parent and cell stage of origin. After cytogenetic detection and confirmation by fluorescence-in-situ hybridization we performed short tandem repeat typing in a child with i(9p), three with i(12p) and three with i(18p). The extra chromosomes were monocentric in each case, the i(9p) and i(12p) constitutions were found in mosaic with normal cell lines. Our results and those of other groups indicate a strong role of maternal meiosis in isochromosome formation: in one i(8p), 4 out of 5 i(9p), 7 out of 12 i(12p) and 18 out of 23 i(18p) families a maternal meiotic nondisjunction had occurred prior to the centromere misdivision. For chromosome 18, the majority of isochromosomes originated from a maternal meiosis II error (16/18). For the other tetrasomic constitutions the isochromosomes could be delineated from paternal as well as from maternal origin, the short tandem repeat typing patterns being consistent with meiotic or mitotic cell stages of formation. Thus, independently of the chromosomal origin, in the majority of cases with additional euchromatic isochromosomes maternal meiosis nondisjunction is the initial step followed by centromeric misdivision. Postzygotic nondisjunction as suggested previously due to mosaics observed in tetrasomies 9p and 12p seems to be of minor importance. The observed origin of isochromosomes 18 corresponds to that of trisomy 18, where the majority of cases can be delineated from maternal meiosis II errors.
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ranking = 2.6
keywords = chromosome
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7/123. Consistency of isochromosome 7q and trisomy 8 in hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma: detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization of a splenic touch-preparation from a pediatric patient.

    Hepatosplenic gamma-delta (gammadelta) T-cell lymphoma is a rare but increasingly recognized lymphoid malignancy predominantly affecting young adult males. It is not well appreciated in the pediatric population. We report the third case of this aggressive lymphoma in a child as well as additional support for the consistency of the recently discovered cytogenetic abnormalities, isochromosome 7q and trisomy 8, which in this case were documented using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of a touch-preparation of the spleen.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chromosome
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8/123. Prenatal detection of trisomy 18 caused by isochromosome 18p and 18q formation.

    We report on the prenatal detection and further genetic studies in a case of trisomy 18 caused by isochromosome 18p [i(18p)] and 18q [i(18q)] formation. The diagnosis was made by standard cytogenetic techniques in amniotic fluid cells and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The formation of the isochromosomes cannot be explained by a single model; centromere misdivision and meiosis II nondisjunction without recombination or mitotic misdivision are the most likely mechanisms of formation as indicated by dna analysis.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = chromosome
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9/123. Maternal isodisomy of chromosome 9 with no impact on the phenotype in a woman with two isochromosomes: i(9p) and i(9q).

    We describe a 34-year-old healthy woman with isochromosomes for the short and long arm of chromosome 9 who was ascertained because of repeated spontaneous abortions. Molecular analysis demonstrated maternal uniparental isodisomy for the whole chromosome 9, thus the origin of the isochromosomes was maternal. Because the patient had a normal phenotype, the maternal isodisomy supports the previous assumption that there are no maternally imprinted genes on chromosome 9.
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ranking = 2.6
keywords = chromosome
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10/123. Isochromosome 1q as the sole chromosomal abnormality in two fetal teratomas. Possible trisomic or tetrasomic zygote rescue in fetal teratoma with an additional isochromosome 1q.

    An isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 1 leading to tetrasomy 1q was detected as the sole chromosomal aberration in two cases of fetal teratoma arising from the oral cavity. This type of teratoma is extremely rare and has seldom been investigated cytogenetically. Studies of dna markers in the tumor, normal fetal skin, and parental cells demonstrated that in both cases the additional 1q material was of maternal origin. In one of the patients, the teratoma had maternal 1q marker alleles that were not found in the fetal body cells. This implies that the tumor was not derived in a direct way from the fetal body tissue; instead, the chromosomally-normal fetus might be the result of some trisomic or tetrasomic zygote rescue mechanism.
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ranking = 2
keywords = chromosome
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