Cases reported "Jaundice"

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1/87. Severe jaundice in a gunshot casualty due to the coexistence of Dubin-Johnson and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    We report an unusual case of a 21-year-old man who was shot in his abdomen in the course of a robbery. He was previously diagnosed as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient. Mild icterus was noticed on admission to the emergency room. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a perforated ileal loop that was resected, and because the liver color was greenish black, a liver biopsy was performed during the operation. After operation the patient went through a severe icteric state that resolved spontaneously within a few days. Urinary coproporphyrin levels, along with compatible liver biopsy, confirmed the diagnosis of Dubin-Johnson disease. Severe hyperbilirubinemia after an abdominal injury is uncommon and is usually due to either a biliary duct injury or iatrogenic injury. This case presents an unusual cause of severe postoperative jaundice due to the rare coexistence of two inherited disorders.
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2/87. Rapidly progressive cholestasis: An unusual reaction to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid therapy in a child.

    Hepatotoxity associated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is usually a self-limited disease with complete recovery. We report a rapidly progressing liver disease with ductopenia and portal fibrosis in a 3-year-old boy treated with Augmentin.
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3/87. Pitfall: a pseudo tumor within the left liver lobe presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and severe weight loss.

    A 51 year old male patient with a history of chronic alcohol consumption and recurrent pancreatitis was referred to our hospital with jaundice, epigastric pain, severe diarrhoea and weight loss of 28 kg within the last 12 months. A CT scan of the abdomen 4 months before admission had shown a pancreatitis with free fluid around the corpus and tail of the pancreas as well as dilated intrahepatic bile ducts and a cavernous transformation of the portal vein. Moreover, a tumor (3.5 x 3.0 x 3.6 cm) with irregular contrast enhancement was seen within the left liver lobe. The patient was referred to us for further evaluation and treatment. The initial B-Mode sonogram revealed a bull's eye like well defined lesion (8.1 x 7.5 x 7.0 cm) within the left liver lobe, consistent with a tumour or abscess. Prior to a diagnostic needle biopsy a PTCD was performed in this case presenting with dilated intrahepatic bile ducts and having a history of Billroth II operation. An additional colour coded Duplex Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated a visceral artery aneurysm and prevented us from performing the diagnostic puncture. The aneurysm was assumed to originate from a variant or a branch of the left hepatic artery. Angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the pancreaticoduodenal artery and coil embolization was performed because of the increasing size and the risk of a bleeding complication. Postinterventional colour duplex ultrasound measurement showed no blood flow within the aneurysm. Retrospectively, the pseudoaneurysm must have led to a compression of the common bile duct, since the patient did not develop cholestasis after embolization and removal of the PTCD. Thus, a pseudoaneurysm of the pancreaticoduodenal artery must be included in the differential diagnosis of liver tumours in patients with chronic pancreatitis, despite its unusual localization near the liver. Therefore, we suggest that colour coded ultrasonography should be applied to any unclear, bull's eye like lesion, even though this method alone cannot exactly determine the origin of the pseudoaneurysm. Interventional angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis and therapy of visceral artery aneurysm.
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4/87. jaundice caused by the vanishing bile duct syndrome in a child with Hodgkin lymphoma.

    The authors report a 5-year-old boy with hodgkin disease and cholestatic jaundice that predated the start of treatment for his lymphoma. His clinical course was punctuated by relentless progression of jaundice, characterized by obstructive pattern liver function tests, severe pruritus, intermittent fever, and marked hypercholesterolemia with development of palmar xanthomata. The jaundice was found to be attributable to vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS). The extent of hepatic dysfunction precluded appropriate treatment of the lymphoma with chemotherapy, and the boy died of liver failure. In the differential diagnosis of jaundice in children with hodgkin disease, VBDS should be considered.
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5/87. hemobilia: a case with recurrent jaundice cured by removal of a blood clot from the common bile duct.

    A 78-year-old woman was admitted for recurrent jaundice, fever and biliary colic. At operation the common duct was found to be filled with a large blood clot. Removal of this clot resulted in a clinical cure.
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6/87. Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with cystic degeneration.

    Most nonendocrine pancreatic neoplasms are adenocarcinomas of ductal cell or acinar origin. Primary carcinomas of the pancreas with squamous differentiation are rare enough to warrant a search for other primary tumors. In the past few decades, well-documented individual reports and large series reviews support the view that these squamous neoplasms are indeed of pancreatic origin and not uncommonly exhibit cystic degeneration. Late manifestation and unfavorable prognosis seem to be uniform features. We report a case with many of these features.
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7/87. Ampullectomy of carcinoma of the papilla of vater in an elderly patient without jaundice.

    A 79 year-old woman was admitted to Aioi City Hospital for a closer examination of hepatic dysfunction. A filling defect was observed at the distal end of the intrapancreatic common bile duct by computed tomography combined with drip infusion cholangiography. The diagnosis of adenoma with dysplasia at the papilla of Vater was obtained by a biopsy performed during duodenoscopy. As a result, we performed an ampullectomy. Histologic examination revealed a papillary adenocarcinoma which partly extended just beyond the muscle of Oddi. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the 35th postoperative day. Here, based upon our experience, we discuss such problems as the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis and the indications for ampullectomy.
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8/87. Treatment of the jaundiced patient with breast carcinoma: case report and alternate therapeutic strategies.

    BACKGROUND: breast carcinoma in the setting of liver metastases and jaundice raises a complex therapeutic dilemma. Not only is the prognosis poor but toxicity related to treatment can be unpredictable due to altered drug clearance. Guidelines built around dose reduction have been suggested but often do not address the varied presentations in clinical medicine. Bilirubin exceeding 5.0 mg% often is considered an absolute contraindication to the administration of chemotherapeutic agents dependent on hepatic metabolism. methods: A 55-year-old woman with metastatic breast carcinoma to the liver and hyperbilirubinemia was treated with sequential, empiric chemotherapy agents with the goal of preventing severe toxicity through dose reduction, avoidance of combination therapy, divided doses (weekly therapy), and selection of drugs less dependent on hepatic clearance. Several attempts did not yield a regimen with a successful response, but toxicity was minimal. Eventually, a successful schedule and dose of an agent cleared by liver metabolism was individualized for the patient. RESULTS: After eight cycles of low dose weekly doxorubicin chemotherapy, the patient's symptoms resolved, bilirubin level normalized, and performance status returned to baseline. The patient remained on treatment and was alive 12 months later. CONCLUSIONS: The authors propose that altering a drug schedule by dividing doses may minimize toxicity, maintain dose intensity, and represent an alternative strategy for the treatment of patients with hepatic impairment.
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9/87. jaundice caused by a pancreatic mass: an exceptional presentation of Crohn's disease.

    It is well known that Crohn's disease can involve the pancreas. However, granulomatous inflammation of the pancreas causing jaundice is extremely rare. In this report, we describe a patient presenting with jaundice in whom a Whipple procedure was performed because of the suspicion of a malignant pancreatic tumor. However, on histologic examination a benign granulomatous pancreatic mass was found. Further investigations revealed no other organ involvement and no underlying disease could be identified. Therefore, the tentative diagnosis of an idiopathic inflammatory pseudotumor was made. Only 6 months later, when the patient developed bloody diarrhea, Crohn's disease was diagnosed. This case stresses that, especially in young patients, Crohn's disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of benign common bile duct strictures even if no other symptoms of Crohn's disease are present.
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10/87. portal vein phlebolithiasis found post-liver transplantation in the native liver of a child with biliary atresia.

    biliary atresia is defined as partial or total obliteration of the extra-hepatic bile ducts. In advanced cases, liver transplantation (LTx) is considered the most appropriate treatment. This report describes a female patient whose biliary atresia and subsequent cirrhosis required LTx at 1 yr of age. Macroscopic inspection of the hilar region of the native liver post-Tx revealed the formation of a pouch in the hepatic duct and a stone in the lumen of the portal vein. x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the stone was composed of cholesteryl cinnamate, gluconic acid phenylhydrazide, Na beta broma-allyl mercaptomethyl penicillinate, and Al2O3 crystals. While the cholesterol component is a known element of gallstones, we attributed the Na beta broma-allyl mercaptomethyl penicillinate to the patient's drug therapy. Our literature search revealed no previous record or crystallographic analysis of portal vein phlebolithiasis. In this report we describe this rare finding.
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