Cases reported "Joint Instability"

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1/30. Isolated posterior cruciate ligament insufficiency induces morphological changes of anterior cruciate ligament collagen fibrils.

    We studied the ultrastructural changes of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with transmission electron micrograph cross-sections following isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury. biopsy specimens were obtained from the proximal third and anteromedial aspect of the ACL. Fourteen patients with PCL-deficient knees at a mean of 22.1 months from injury to surgery and 5 normal knees amputated secondary to malignant tumors or traumatic injuries were used as controls. A significant difference was found in the number of collagen fibrils per 1 microm2 between the PCL-deficient knee group and the control group. There was a significant difference found in the collagen fibril diameter between the PCL-deficient knee group and the control group. The collagen packing density (the percentage of sampled area occupied by collagen fibrils) was also significantly different between the PCL-deficient knee and the control group. The current study shows that an isolated PCL insufficiency can induce morphological changes in ACL collagen fibrils, suggesting that a PCL insufficiency can have adverse effects on other ligamentous structures in the knee joint.
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keywords = anteromedial, group
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2/30. Pediatric atlantoaxial instability: management with screw fixation.

    Sixteen pediatric patients (age range 3-15 years; mean 9.4 years) with atlantoaxial instability underwent screw fixation at Columbus Children's Hospital between 1992 and 1998. Three patients with type II odontoid fractures underwent odontoid screw fixation. The remaining group of 13 patients had posterior C1-2 transarticular screw fixation and Sonntag C1-2 fusion. The group included 3 patients with rotatory C1-2 fixation, 4 patients with os odontoideum, 4 patients with congenital atlantoaxial instability and 2 patients with traumatic C1-2 instability. Postoperatively, all patients were placed in a Miami-J collar only. At 3 months follow-up, all patients achieved fusion. Bony fusion across the fracture line was clearly evident in patients with odontoid screws. The only complications in this series were a transient swallowing difficulty that resolved spontaneously in 2 weeks, and another patient's C1-2 fusion had extended to C2-3 at 9 months follow-up. This study demonstrates that children at 3 years of age and older, who sustain a type II odontoid fracture with an intact transverse ligament, can be safely managed with odontoid screws if the fracture is less than 4 weeks old. Posterior C1-2 transarticular screw fixation can be done safely and results in a high fusion rate in children older than 4 years of age. The technical difficulties of screw fixation in children are discussed.
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keywords = group
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3/30. Delayed post-traumatic cervical instability.

    BACKGROUND: Cervical spine instability is a clinical entity whose biomechanical and radiological features have been widely discussed by many authors. On the other hand, the subject of delayed post-traumatic cervical instability is often surrounded by confusion due to its difficult nosologic framing; the aim of this study is to contribute to the matter. methods: A cooperative study was organized by the Study Group for Spinal Surgery of the Italian Society of neurosurgery to evaluate cervical trauma patients surgically treated more than 20 days after the traumatic event. From a total number of 172 patients, twenty-five were admitted to the study, because neuroradiological investigations performed during the acute phase had shown either an absence of traumatic lesions or only minimal lesions judged to be stable. For this reason these 25 patients had not been treated by either surgery or immobilization in a halo vest. Some time after trauma, this group of patients clearly demonstrated evidence of unstable lesions requiring surgical treatment, following the appearance of new clinical signs or on neuroradiological follow-up. RESULTS: Re-examination of the neuroradiological investigations performed during the acute phase made it possible to identify elements that might have led us to suspect the presence of ligamental lesions: microfractures, dislocations less than 3 mm, and inversion of physiological lordosis. CONCLUSIONS: This review clearly indicates that patients with even mild cervical trauma must be scrupulously evaluated during the acute phase and that in some cases it is advisable to perform a more detailed neuroradiological investigation.
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keywords = group
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4/30. The bone block procedure in recurrent posterior shoulder instability.

    We analyzed the results of eleven shoulders in ten patients who had a bone block procedure for recurrent posterior shoulder instability after extensive conservative treatment had failed. Five patients had posterior instability with additional laxity in another direction (UPI ), and five patients had unidirectional posterior instability without additional laxity (UPI-). After a median follow-up of 72 (43-102) months there was no recurrent posterior instability in the UPI-group (100% success), but the recurrence rate in the UPI group was high (20% success). We concluded from these results that a bone block procedure is not sufficient to treat recurrent posterior shoulder instability in unidirectional posterior instability with additional laxity but it seems to be a good method to treat unidirectional posterior instability without additional laxity.
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keywords = group
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5/30. Injuries to the posterolateral aspect of the knee accompanied by compression fracture of the anterior part of the medial tibial plateau.

    We present 12 cases of patients with injury to the posterolateral aspect of the knee accompanied by a compression fracture of the anterior part of the medial tibial plateau. There were 11 male patients and 1 female patient with an average age of 26 years (range, 17 to 44 years). There were 4 cases of posterolateral rotatory instability and 8 cases of straight lateral instability of the knee. The size of the compression fracture was classified into 2 types, small (8 cases) and large (4 cases). Although the mechanism of injury was considered to be hyperextension and varus force, the pattern of cruciate ligament injuries varied from case to case. The following 3 questions should be considered to determine which cruciate ligament is damaged: (1) Was the ipsilateral foot fixed to the ground? (2) Was forward inertia involved? (3) Was there a direct blow to the anteromedial aspect of the tibia or to the femur? Accompanied fractures of the medial tibial plateau were considered to have been compressed by the medial femoral condyle. The size of the accompanying compression fracture varied; 7 of 8 cases with a small-type fracture had posterior cruciate ligament injuries and 3 of 4 cases with a large-type fracture had anterior cruciate ligament injuries. The size of the fracture is determined by which point of the medial tibial plateau touched the medial femoral condyle. We propose that a compression fracture of the anterior part of the medial tibial plateau indicates a coexistent posterolateral aspect injury, and that especially a small compression fracture strongly suggests an accompanying posterior cruciate ligament injury, as well.
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ranking = 0.9989449800942
keywords = anteromedial
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6/30. Posterolateral spinal fusion at unintended levels due to bone-graft migration: no effect on clinical outcome in 19/130 patients.

    In a prospective randomized study, we evaluated the risk of lumbar posterolateral spinal fusion at an unintended level due to bone graft migration. 130 patients underwent fusion supplemented by pedicle screw fixation (Cotrell-Dubousset, 64 patients) or uninstrumented fusion (66 patients). This was assessed by two independent observers on antero-posterior, and lateral radiographs taken 1 year after surgery. All patients had ben operated on at the preoperatively planned levels. Both observers agreed that fusion had taken place at an unintended level in 19 cases (14%). We found a tendency towards a higher risk of this "complication" when using supplementary pedicle screw fixation. The functional outcome, assessed by the Dallas Pain Questionnaire and the low back pain Rating scale, was similar in patients having fusion at an unintended level and in patients fused only at the intended levels. There was no difference between the two groups concerning reoperation rates, postoperative smoking or social status. We conclude that unintended fusion occurs and tends to be commoner with the use of pedicle screw instrumentation. However, this complication seems not to affect the functional outcome if fusion has taken place at the intended level.
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ranking = 0.00021100398115934
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7/30. Complications of thermal capsulorrhaphy of the shoulder.

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of recurrence and the prevalence of complications related to the use of thermal energy for the treatment of glenohumeral instability. methods: A survey was conducted of all members of the American shoulder and elbow Surgeons, the arthroscopy association of north america, and the American Orthopaedic Society for sports medicine. The survey focused on the rate of recurrence, the number of axillary nerve injuries, and the prevalence of capsular insufficiency seen in revision surgery after thermal capsulorrhaphy of the shoulder. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy-nine surgeons responded to the survey. Of 236,015 shoulder procedures performed over the last five years, 14,277 (6%) involved the use of thermal energy (1,077 involved laser energy; 9,013, monopolar radiofrequency; and 4,187, bipolar radiofrequency) for the treatment of glenohumeral instability. The rates of recurrent instability after laser, monopolar radiofrequency, and bipolar radiofrequency capsulorrhaphy were 8.4%, 8.3%, and 7.1%, respectively. Of the patients with recurrent instability, 363 (twenty-one treated with laser energy, 220 treated with monopolar radiofrequency, and 122 treated with bipolar radiofrequency) required revision surgery. In this group of patients with revision surgery, seven (33%) of the twenty-one treated primarily with laser energy, thirty-nine (18%) of the 220 treated primarily with monopolar radiofrequency, and twenty-five (20%) of the 122 treated primarily with bipolar radiofrequency exhibited signs of capsular attenuation at the time of the revision. A total of 196 patients (1.4%) (three treated with laser energy; 133, with monopolar radiofrequency; and sixty, with bipolar radiofrequency) had a postoperative axillary neuropathy; 93% of the 196 had a sensory deficit only. Of these patients, 95% recovered completely, with the sensory deficits lasting an average of 2.3 months and the combined deficits, an average of four months. CONCLUSIONS: The use of thermal energy for the treatment of shoulder instability has promising short-term results. The rates of recurrent instability are low. However, when recurrent instability occurs, capsular insufficiency may be present. Axillary nerve injury was reported in 1.4% of the patients, in most of whom it resolved spontaneously.
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ranking = 0.00021100398115934
keywords = group
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8/30. S1 pediculoiliac screw fixation in instabilities of the sacroiliac complex: biomechanical study and report of two cases.

    OBJECTIVE: A new technique for posterior sacroiliac fixation is described and compared with conventional techniques. PATIENTS/MATERIAL AND methods: A patient with sacral alar fracture (zone 1) and another one with sacroiliac joint instability due to tuberculous infection underwent fixation using screws placed in the S1 pedicle and the iliac bone. Vertical stability of the new technique also was investigated using polyurethane pelvic bone analogs and compared with anterior double plating (group P) and iliosacral screw fixation (group ISS) techniques. RESULTS: Healing was obtained and reduction was maintained in both patients on the final follow-up examination at 2 years postoperatively. Vertical loading tests revealed that failure loads within the first 10 mm of displacement of the new pediculoiliac screw fixation technique (group PIS) was higher than plating (P = 0.03) and lower than ISS techniques (P = 0.002). Ultimate failure load of the PIS technique was slightly higher than plating (P = 0.277) and lower than ISS techniques (P = 0.003). With the addition of an iliosacral screw to the pediculoiliac screw construction (PIS ISS), the PIS technique became more stable in early (P = 0.110) and ultimate failure loads (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Pediculoiliac screw fixation for sacroiliac joint disruptions and zone I sacrum fractures using iliac and S1 pedicle screws is a new and effective alternative for obtaining and maintaining anatomic reduction.
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ranking = 0.00063301194347801
keywords = group
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9/30. Pathogenesis and diagnosis of delayed vertebral collapse resulting from osteoporotic spinal fracture.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In recent years there have been an increasing number of reports on surgical cases involving delayed neurological deficits caused by vertebral collapse after osteoporotic vertebral fracture. PURPOSE: We do not yet know which patients are most susceptible to delayed vertebral collapse and subsequent neurological deficits, or whether this pathological condition can be prevented or predicted. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of progression and radiographic features characteristic of this disease, and we report here the predictive or risk factors for delayed osteoporotic vertebral collapse. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospectively, we investigated the pathogenesis and diagnosis of delayed vertebral collapse with neurological deficit resulting from osteoporosis. PATIENT SAMPLE: A total of 28 patients (7 men and 21 women) with neurological deficits resulting from vertebral collapse caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures were the subjects for this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparisons and investigations about clinical features and radiographic findings between the patient group of delayed vertebral collapse with neurological deficits and the group of osteoporotic spinal fracture with no neurological deficits. methods: The following factors were examined: the cause of injury; the length of time from injury, or the onset of pain, to the onset of neurological symptoms; radiographic findings obtained during the above period; the clinical course of vertebral fracture on plain X-ray films; time of appearance of the intravertebral cleft, and its localization and changes. RESULTS: Six patients were hospitalized and prescribed a period of 2 weeks of bed rest followed by the fitting of a corset; seven outpatients were corseted but not prescribed bed rest; 15 patients were given medication only at an outpatient clinic. At radiography, intravertebral clefts were detected in 22 patients (79%) during the period from the appearance of pain to the onset of neurological deficit. In 14 patients (50%) who were radiographed every 1 to 2 weeks from the injury to the onset of neurological symptoms, the course of progression to collapse of the vertebral body could be observed. CONCLUSION: Initial correct diagnosis and immobilization are important in preventing the delayed collapse with neurological deficit. The presence of an intravertebral cleft and instability of the affected vertebra represent risk factors for vertebral collapse with neurological deficit, requiring careful observation.
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ranking = 0.00042200796231867
keywords = group
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10/30. magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of chronic posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow.

    Posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow can be difficult to diagnose and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. Cases of chronic posterolateral rotatory instability (symptoms present more than 1 year) may be an even more perplexing subgroup. This is a case report of a patient with a 30-year history of intermittent elbow instability. Clinical examination was equivocal, and magnetic resonance imaging was unable to define any ligamentous injury around the elbow. Examination under anesthesia and surgical findings were consistent with complete disruption of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament. The 12-month follow-up after surgical reconstruction showed complete resolution of symptoms. Posterolateral rotatory instability is a diagnosis largely made by examination under anesthesia. A thorough history and a high clinical suspicion are necessary to support the physician's decision to place the patient under anesthesia. Confirmation of a chronic tear of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow with magnetic resonance imaging can be difficult and sometimes misleading.
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ranking = 0.00021100398115934
keywords = group
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