Cases reported "Joint Instability"

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1/125. Transoral fusion with internal fixation in a displaced hangman's fracture.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case is reported in which late displacement of a "hangman's fracture" was managed by transoral C2-C3 fusion by using bicortical iliac crest graft and a titanium cervical locking plate. OBJECTIVES: To review the management of unstable fractures of the axis and to study other reports of transoral instrumentation of the cervical spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Undisplaced fractures of the axis are considered to be stable injuries. Although late displacement is unusual, it can lead to fracture nonunion with persisting instability and spinal cord dysfunction. In this situation, an anterior fusion of the second and third cervical vertebrae is preferred to a posterior fusion from the atlas to the third cervical vertebra, which would abolish lateral rotation between C1 and C2. methods: The literature on hangman's fractures was reviewed. Clinical and radiographic details of a case of C2 instability were recorded, and the particular problems posed by late displacement were considered. RESULTS: There are no other reports of transoral instrumentation of the cervical spine. A sound fusion of C2-C3 was obtained without infection or other complications. Good neck movement returned by 6 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: Undisplaced fractures of the axis are not always stable. The transoral route allows good access for stabilization of displaced hangman's fractures. In special circumstances, a locking plate may prove useful in securing the bone graft. The cervical spine locking plate can be inserted transorally with no complications and by using standard instrumentation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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2/125. Pediatric atlantoaxial instability: management with screw fixation.

    Sixteen pediatric patients (age range 3-15 years; mean 9.4 years) with atlantoaxial instability underwent screw fixation at Columbus Children's Hospital between 1992 and 1998. Three patients with type II odontoid fractures underwent odontoid screw fixation. The remaining group of 13 patients had posterior C1-2 transarticular screw fixation and Sonntag C1-2 fusion. The group included 3 patients with rotatory C1-2 fixation, 4 patients with os odontoideum, 4 patients with congenital atlantoaxial instability and 2 patients with traumatic C1-2 instability. Postoperatively, all patients were placed in a Miami-J collar only. At 3 months follow-up, all patients achieved fusion. Bony fusion across the fracture line was clearly evident in patients with odontoid screws. The only complications in this series were a transient swallowing difficulty that resolved spontaneously in 2 weeks, and another patient's C1-2 fusion had extended to C2-3 at 9 months follow-up. This study demonstrates that children at 3 years of age and older, who sustain a type II odontoid fracture with an intact transverse ligament, can be safely managed with odontoid screws if the fracture is less than 4 weeks old. Posterior C1-2 transarticular screw fixation can be done safely and results in a high fusion rate in children older than 4 years of age. The technical difficulties of screw fixation in children are discussed.
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ranking = 0.36363636363636
keywords = fracture
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3/125. Delayed post-traumatic cervical instability.

    BACKGROUND: Cervical spine instability is a clinical entity whose biomechanical and radiological features have been widely discussed by many authors. On the other hand, the subject of delayed post-traumatic cervical instability is often surrounded by confusion due to its difficult nosologic framing; the aim of this study is to contribute to the matter. methods: A cooperative study was organized by the Study Group for Spinal Surgery of the Italian Society of neurosurgery to evaluate cervical trauma patients surgically treated more than 20 days after the traumatic event. From a total number of 172 patients, twenty-five were admitted to the study, because neuroradiological investigations performed during the acute phase had shown either an absence of traumatic lesions or only minimal lesions judged to be stable. For this reason these 25 patients had not been treated by either surgery or immobilization in a halo vest. Some time after trauma, this group of patients clearly demonstrated evidence of unstable lesions requiring surgical treatment, following the appearance of new clinical signs or on neuroradiological follow-up. RESULTS: Re-examination of the neuroradiological investigations performed during the acute phase made it possible to identify elements that might have led us to suspect the presence of ligamental lesions: microfractures, dislocations less than 3 mm, and inversion of physiological lordosis. CONCLUSIONS: This review clearly indicates that patients with even mild cervical trauma must be scrupulously evaluated during the acute phase and that in some cases it is advisable to perform a more detailed neuroradiological investigation.
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ranking = 0.090909090909091
keywords = fracture
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4/125. Spinal instrumentation for unstable C1-2 injury.

    Seventeen patients with unstable C1-2 injuries were treated between 1990 and 1997. Various methods of instrumentation surgery were performed in 16 patients, excluding a case of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. Posterior stabilization was carried out in 14 cases using Halifax interlaminar clamp, Sof'wire or Danek cable, or more recently, transarticular screws. Transodontoid anterior screw fixation was performed in four cases of odontoid process fractures, with posterior instrumentation in two cases because of malunion. Rigid internal fixation by instrumentation surgery for the unstable C1-2 injury avoids long-term application of a Halo brace and facilitates early rehabilitation. However, the procedure is technically demanding with the risk of neural and vascular injuries, particularly with posterior screw fixation. Sagittal reconstruction of thin-sliced computed tomography scans at the C1-2 region, neuronavigator, and intraoperative fluoroscopy are essential to allow preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative guidance.
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ranking = 0.090909090909091
keywords = fracture
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5/125. knee dislocation following anterior cruciate ligament disruption without any other ligament tears.

    We report a rare case of complete knee dislocation following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption without any other ligament tears. The pathology of the knee joint was torn ACL, intact other ligaments, osteochondral fractures and bone bruise of the lateral femoral condyle, and torn lateral meniscus. In this case, osteochondral fracture resulting from the anteriorly sublaxiation of the tibia following ACL disruption was considered to prevent from spontaneous reduction. This case suggests that anterolateral knee dislocation and spontaneous reduction may occur in ACL injuries.
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ranking = 0.18181818181818
keywords = fracture
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6/125. CT imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions of shoulders with anterior glenohumeral instability.

    Glenohumeral instability is a common occurrence following anterior dislocation of the shoulder joint, particularly in young men. The bony abnormalities encountered in patients with glenohumeral instability can be difficult to detect with conventional radiography, even with special views. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bony abnormalities associated with glenohumeral instability using CT imaging with 3-D reconstruction images. We scanned 11 patients with glenohumeral instability, one with bilateral symptoms; 10 were male, one female, and their ages ranged from 18-66 years. Contiguous 3 mm axial slices of the glenohumeral joint were taken at 2 mm intervals using a Siemens Somatom CT scanner. In the 12 shoulders imaged, we identified four main abnormalities. A humeral-head defect or Hill-Sachs deformity was seen in 83% cases, fractures of the anterior glenoid rim in 50%, periosteal new bone formation secondary to capsular stripping in 42%, and loose bone fragments in 25%. Manipulation of the 3-D images enabled the abnormalities to be well seen in all cases, giving a graphic visualization of the joint, and only two 3-D images were needed to demonstrate all the necessary information. We feel that CT is the imaging modality most likely to show all the bone abnormalities associated with glenohumeral instability. These bony changes may lead to the correct inference of soft tissue abnormalities making more invasive examinations such as arthrography unnecessary.
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ranking = 0.090909090909091
keywords = fracture
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7/125. Peroneus longus tendon rupture as a cause of chronic lateral ankle pain.

    rupture of the peroneus longus tendon with an associated fracture of the os peroneum is an uncommon injury, which may present as chronic lateral ankle instability. There have been only seven cases documented in the literature since 1966. A case of chronic peroneus longus tendon rupture with os peroneum fracture is presented. The authors review their clinical, radiographic, and operative treatment of this patient and review the literature of this unusual injury.
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ranking = 0.18181818181818
keywords = fracture
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8/125. Unstable cervical spine without spinal cord injury in penetrating neck trauma.

    Cervical spine instability in the neurologically intact patient following penetrating neck trauma has been considered rare or non-existent. We present a case of a woman with an unstable C5 fracture without spinal cord injury after a gunshot wound to the neck. Considerations regarding the risk of cervical spine instability are discussed, as well as suggestions for a prudent approach to such patients.
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ranking = 0.090909090909091
keywords = fracture
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9/125. Traumatic medial malleolar fracture of a fibula flap donor leg.

    A 50-year-old male presented with a T4 N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth and alveolus. Treatment included a partial mandibulectomy with a free osteocutaneous fibula flap reconstruction. He made a good postoperative recovery and was given adjuvant radiotherapy. No problems were reported with the donor site or ankle. Five months after harvesting the flap the patient sustained a fracture of the medial malleolus having jumped over a ditch playing golf. This was treated successfully with a below knee plaster of paris cast. The interosseous membrane was not ruptured in the accident indicating that the distal fibula left in situ was adequate to maintain the integrity of the mortice. A degree of ankle instability may be present after fibula flap harvest which is only revealed by athletic activity.
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ranking = 0.45454545454545
keywords = fracture
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10/125. Use of a hinged external fixator for elbow instability after severe distal humeral fracture.

    The authors report the case of a forty-year-old man who developed acute elbow instability after fixation of an open, comminuted distal humeral fracture. Treatment with a hinged, external elbow fixator was successful in reestablishing elbow stability and a functional range of elbow motion. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the use of this device for acute elbow instability after distal humeral fracture fixation has not been previously reported.
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ranking = 0.54545454545455
keywords = fracture
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