Cases reported "Joint Instability"

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1/17. A clinico-pathological study of cervical myelopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: post-mortem analysis of two cases.

    Two patients who developed cervical myelopathy secondary to rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed post mortem. One patient had anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) combined with subaxial subluxation (SS), and the other had vertical subluxation (VS) combined with SS. In the patient with AAS, the posterior aspect of the spinal cord demonstrated severe constriction at the C2 segment, which arose from dynamic osseous compression by the C1 posterior arch. A histological cross-section of the spinal cord at the segment was characterized by distinct necrosis in the posterior white columns and the gray matter. In the patient with VS, the upper cervical cord and medulla oblongata showed angulation over the invaginated odontoid process, whereas no significant pathological changes were observed. At the level of SS, the spinal cord was pinched and compressed between the upper corner of the vertebral body and the lower edge of the lamina. Histologically, demyelination and gliosis were observed in the posterior and lateral white columns.
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2/17. Atlanto axial instability due to neurofibromatosis: case report.

    Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant genetic disease, characterized by cafe au lait spots, neurofibromas and several bony anomalies. Deformities of the spine are the most frequent alterations. Involvement of the cervical spine has been studied less frequently. The case of a 16-year-old male patient affected by neurofibromatosis, with cervical pain without neurological symptoms is presented. x-rays, CT-scan and MRI demonstrated the presence of cervical kyphosis, occipitoaxial instability and atlantoaxial instability with subluxation. Posterior occipito-C2 fusion was performed with prior placement of a halo-vest. The outcome at four years was good with solid occipito axial fusion, moderate loss of cervical spine flexion and moderate-to-severe limitation of cervical spine rotation. The incidence and variety of alterations of the cervical spine in patients affected with neurofibromatosis is discussed, as well as the results obtained by the treatment.
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3/17. Technical note: unilateral posterior resection of cervical disc and spondylostenosis with contralateral fusion for instability.

    BACKGROUND: Posterior cervical unilateral diskectomy and decompression for stenosis with instability may be successfully stabilized with contralateral diskectomy and fusion. methods: A 49-year-old male with a left-sided C8 radiculopathy had dynamic X-ray, MR, and CT studies that documented an old anterior diskectomy and fusion at the C5-C6 level, and a new left-sided foraminal disc herniation at the C7-T1 level with instability, accompanied by C6-T1 spondylostenosis. Following left-sided C6-T1 laminectomies with excision of C7-T1 disc, a contralateral right-sided C5-T2 fusion was performed with fibula strut allograft wired to the spinous processes using titanium cable and iliac crest autograft. RESULTS: X-ray and 2D CT studies performed 3 and 6 months postoperatively confirmed adequate unilateral decompression of stenosis with disc removal and contralateral fusion. Within three weeks of surgery, the patient had no residual neurological deficit. Three years later, he remained intact, and X-ray studies continued to demonstrate spinal stability. CONCLUSIONS: A unilateral C7-T1 disc herniation with instability accompanied by C6-T1 spondylostenosis were successfully managed with unilateral decompression and disc excision followed by contralateral fusion.
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4/17. Awake tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask airway in a patient with halo traction.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of awake tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) in a patient with halo traction. Clinical features: A 16-yr-old, 40 kg, boy with atlanto-occipital instability and halo traction was scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia. The head of the patient was fixed in a position of flexion and extension was impossible. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed that pharyngeal and laryngeal axes were aligned, but that the oral axis was in an extreme divergent plane. The tongue and oropharynx were anesthetized with 10% lidocaine spray and bilateral superior laryngeal nerve blockade was performed. Under sedation, awake orotracheal intubation via ILMA was successful. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy has been recommended for awake tracheal intubation in such patients. Other techniques, such as use of the Bullard laryngoscope have been described also but awake tracheal intubation through the ILMA in patients with a halo device in situ has seldom been reported in the medical literature. CONCLUSION: airway management of patients with cervical spine instability includes adequate preoperative evaluation of the airway and choosing the appropriate intubation technique. We suggest that the ILMA may be an adequate alternative for awake tracheal intubation in patients with an unstable cervical spine and cervical immobilization with a halo device.
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5/17. Malleolus externus plasty for joint reconstruction in fibular aplasia: preliminary report of a new technique.

    The instability of the upper and the lower ankle joint represents a serious problem in patients with fibular aplasia. None of the previous techniques demonstrated at least sufficient results. In this report we present a new technique of malleolus externus plasty applied in a 5 1/2-year-old boy with fibular aplasia (type II according to Coventry and Johnson or type Ib according to Achtermann and Kalamchi) with a 6 cm length deficiency of the lower leg and 1 cm of the upper leg. Furthermore, he showed a tibial antecurvation deformity of 20 degrees, a fourth ray foot with adduction deformity of the hindfoot, cutane syndactyly D 2-4, and a hallux varus. This new technique works on the following principle. A triangular iliac crest transplant is implanted with an apophysis and the annexing fascia glutealis, including the osseous part of the transplant, in the lateral distal tibia in a way that the growing apophyseal part lays distally covering the lateral talus. Gluteal fascia annexed to the apophysis was used for the reconstruction of a lateral tendon. Using a ring fixator the transplant is fixed and coincidentally the lower leg lengthened and the axis corrected. The axis deformity and the leg-length deficiency of 7 cm were equalized. The fixator could be removed after 6 months. Radiologically, an entire integration of the iliac crest transplant was found. magnetic resonance imaging showed it had sufficient circulation. The reexamination 2.5 years later demonstrated a simultaneous growth of the malleolus externus and the distal tibia and stable ankle joints with sufficient mobility and full weight-bearing capability. For support of the foot the boy uses ready-made shoes with curved arch supports. In conclusion, using this new technique an individually adapted lateral malleolus with growth-potential can be constructed that stabilizes the foot and the ankle joints. Thus, reluxations of the foot specifically in relation to lengthening of lower legs can be avoided with concurrent preservation of the range of movement of the ankle joint.
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6/17. Brooks' posterior stabilisation surgery for atlantoaxial instability: review of 54 cases.

    PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of Brooks' posterior stabilisation and fusion for the unstable atlantoaxial joint due to congenital dysplastic dens and trauma. methods: We retrospectively studied records of 54 patients (36 males and 18 females; age range, 3-58 years) who underwent Brooks' posterior stabilisation procedure between March 1975 and December 1999, at the Catholic University of korea Medical Center and Dong-Shin General Hospital, Seoul. A single-stranded Kirschner wire was used to stabilise the first 19 cases (thin wires in 12 cases and thick wires in 7), and double-stranded wires were used in the next 35 cases (thin wires in 4 cases and thick wires in 31). After surgery, patients were immobilised in bed with light Halter traction of the head, followed by cervical bracing. RESULTS: Fusion was observed by X-ray postoperatively at 15 weeks in 48 patients. Reduction was achieved in 3 luxation cases (including the single case of rotatory fixation). Brooks' fusion failed in 4 patients with dens fractures and 2 with dens anomaly. Four dens fractures in cases of successful Brooks' fusion in Brooks' fusion did not unite. Wire failure occurred in 4 cases of thin single-stranded wire fixation, namely, 2 cases of dens fractures and 2 of dens anomaly. CONCLUSION: Brooks' procedure is safe and has a high fusion rate when double-stranded strong wire fixation of the atlantoaxial joint is combined with meticulous bone grafting and subsequent cervical bracing.
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7/17. Pathogenesis and diagnosis of delayed vertebral collapse resulting from osteoporotic spinal fracture.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In recent years there have been an increasing number of reports on surgical cases involving delayed neurological deficits caused by vertebral collapse after osteoporotic vertebral fracture. PURPOSE: We do not yet know which patients are most susceptible to delayed vertebral collapse and subsequent neurological deficits, or whether this pathological condition can be prevented or predicted. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of progression and radiographic features characteristic of this disease, and we report here the predictive or risk factors for delayed osteoporotic vertebral collapse. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospectively, we investigated the pathogenesis and diagnosis of delayed vertebral collapse with neurological deficit resulting from osteoporosis. PATIENT SAMPLE: A total of 28 patients (7 men and 21 women) with neurological deficits resulting from vertebral collapse caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures were the subjects for this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparisons and investigations about clinical features and radiographic findings between the patient group of delayed vertebral collapse with neurological deficits and the group of osteoporotic spinal fracture with no neurological deficits. methods: The following factors were examined: the cause of injury; the length of time from injury, or the onset of pain, to the onset of neurological symptoms; radiographic findings obtained during the above period; the clinical course of vertebral fracture on plain X-ray films; time of appearance of the intravertebral cleft, and its localization and changes. RESULTS: Six patients were hospitalized and prescribed a period of 2 weeks of bed rest followed by the fitting of a corset; seven outpatients were corseted but not prescribed bed rest; 15 patients were given medication only at an outpatient clinic. At radiography, intravertebral clefts were detected in 22 patients (79%) during the period from the appearance of pain to the onset of neurological deficit. In 14 patients (50%) who were radiographed every 1 to 2 weeks from the injury to the onset of neurological symptoms, the course of progression to collapse of the vertebral body could be observed. CONCLUSION: Initial correct diagnosis and immobilization are important in preventing the delayed collapse with neurological deficit. The presence of an intravertebral cleft and instability of the affected vertebra represent risk factors for vertebral collapse with neurological deficit, requiring careful observation.
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8/17. Calcaneocuboid joint instability: a novel operative technique for anatomic reconstruction.

    A case history of a 13-year-old female national top-level gymnast, suffering from calcaneocuboid joint instability, is presented. The procedure was done as an anatomic repair by capsular reefing, which was augmented using a local periosteal flap. Initially, the athlete twisted her ankle. Clinical investigation revealed no sign of a lateral ankle ligament injury, but following this initial examination, recurrent giving-way of the foot occurred. She additionally felt significant but diffuse pain on the lateral side of the foot during loading in training and competition. For 2 months she was unable to run and conservative treatment failed. diagnosis of a calcaneocuboid instability was established 4 months after the initial lesion by clinical and x-ray stress examination of the calcaneocuboid joint. Open surgery was successfully performed. Early functional posttreatment was done and the patient returned to full high-level gymnastics ability 16 weeks after surgery. Two years later, a similar injury occurred to the opposite calcaneocuboid joint and the same operative procedure again led to full sports ability.
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9/17. Idiopathic chondrolysis of the ankle.

    A 21-year-old West Point cadet presented to our institution with a history of chronic left lateral ankle instability. The initial injury occurred 5 years earlier. physical examination results and stress radiographs were consistent with lateral instability. The patient underwent an ankle arthroscopy and lateral ankle ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopic findings included moderate synovitis, grade II anterolateral chondrosis, and an anterior talar osteophyte. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and returned to activity. Eleven months after surgery he presented with increased left ankle pain. On physical examination he had a stable ankle, but radiographs revealed marked loss of ankle joint space. Significant diffuse fraying and thinning of the articular cartilage noted on repeat arthroscopy were consistent with chondrolysis.
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10/17. [Ankle arthrodesis for congenital absence of the fibula]

    THE PROBLEM: Bilateral congenital absence of the fibula in a 10-year-old boy. A marked valgus malalignment at the left ankle and a foot with three rays caused pain during standing and walking. Ortheses did not help. Therefore, various treatment options were considered such as amputation of the foot, a supramalleolar correction osteotomy, and a tibiotalar arthrodesis. THE SOLUTION: Correction of malalignment and ankle arthrodesis stabilized with an external mini-fixator while sparing the distal tibial physis. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: Two skin incisions: one on the medial side visualizing the flexor tendons and the neurovascular bundle while sparing the sural nerve and the small saphenous vein. Exposure of the medial malleolus after division of its ligamentous and capsular attachments. Localization of the ankle joint. The second incision on the lateral side. Z-lengthening of the sole peroneal tendon. Opening of the ankle joint at the lateral and anterior aspect. Resection of the articular surfaces of tibia and talus based on a preoperatively made drawing that showed an alignment of the hindfoot with the longitudinal axis of the tibia and the foot in 90 degrees in relation to the leg. Temporary insertion of a Kirschner wire from the sole of the foot into the tibia to maintain the obtained correction. Placement of a mini-fixator: one threaded Kirschner wire crosses the talocalcaneal synostosis, the second the distal tibial epiphysis, and the third one the proximal third of the tibia. Once the frame is mounted, compression of the resection surfaces and slight distraction between the proximal and middle Kirschner wires. RESULT: At the age of 16 years the boy is able to use a regular shoe with an orthotic insert; he is pain-free and can participate in all daily activities. The growth of the tibia has not been affected.
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