Cases reported "Joint Instability"

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1/48. Spontaneous or traumatic premature closure of the tibial tubercle.

    A premature closure of the physis of the tibial tubercle in a young man has given rise to a shortening of the tibia, a patella alta and a reversed tibial slope of 20 degrees with clinical genu recurvatum. After a proximal open wedge tibial osteotomy all three postural deformities could be restored. The etiology of this complex deformity is discussed.
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keywords = tibia
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2/48. An extra-articular cause of locking knee.

    We report an uncommon case of locking of the knee in a 23-year-old girl. It was due to an osteochondroma at the medial aspect of the proximal tibia.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = tibia
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3/48. knee dislocation following anterior cruciate ligament disruption without any other ligament tears.

    We report a rare case of complete knee dislocation following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption without any other ligament tears. The pathology of the knee joint was torn ACL, intact other ligaments, osteochondral fractures and bone bruise of the lateral femoral condyle, and torn lateral meniscus. In this case, osteochondral fracture resulting from the anteriorly sublaxiation of the tibia following ACL disruption was considered to prevent from spontaneous reduction. This case suggests that anterolateral knee dislocation and spontaneous reduction may occur in ACL injuries.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = tibia
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4/48. The cyclops lesion: a cause of diminished knee extension after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Four patients presented with persistent diminution of knee motion after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament with a novel lesion as the cause. Each had participated in an aggressive rehabilitation program for a minimum of 2 months with emphasis on regaining full range of knee motion. Because chronic impairment of knee extension can be disabling, in those who did not regain full range of motion, arthroscopy of the knee ensued. All had a lesion in the intercondylar notch near the tibial insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament that acted as a mechanical obstruction to full knee extension. Grossly and histologically, these were similar to the cyclops lesion that also has been shown to cause loss of knee extension after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopic debridement of the cyclops lesion and manual manipulation of the knee under anesthesia lead to restoration of full knee extension in all knees. In 1 other knee with chronic instability after anterior cruciate ligament rupture, the cyclops lesion was present but was very small and was not associated with diminished knee extension. When loss of full extension persists for 2 months after anterior cruciate ligament disruption despite aggressive rehabilitation, the presence of a cyclops lesion should be considered.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = tibia
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5/48. A technical solution for secondary arthritis due to chronic proximal tibiofibular joint instability.

    Chronic instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is an uncommon diagnosis and not frequently reported in the literature. The management options of this joint instability, complicated with secondary arthritis, have rarely been discussed and consist mainly of fibular head resection or arthrodesis of this joint. We describe a new technical procedure for addressing both the instability and the joint secondary arthritis. Stability of the joint is achieved by ligament reconstruction using a biceps femoris split passed through the tibial metaphysis and fixated back to the fibular head using bone anchors. The arthritic changes are addressed by interposition of a vascularized fascia lata strip. The described procedure offers a firm stabilization with no need for postoperative restrictions and an alternative to the inadvisable joint arthrodesis or resection.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = tibia
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6/48. Irreducible posterolateral dislocation of the knee.

    Traumatic knee dislocations are relatively rare, often associated with neurovascular injury, and almost always amenable to closed reduction. However, over the years, several authors have recognized that the rare knee dislocation not reducible by closed manipulation usually involves posterolateral dislocation of the tibia and button-holing of the medial femoral condyle through the medial retinaculum. These cases present with a dimple sign, a characteristic invagination of tissues at the medial joint line. Open reduction entails extraction of the soft-tissue collar that becomes incarcerated in the trochlea and intercondylar notch. We present an interesting case of irreducible posterolateral knee dislocation and review many of the salient points associated with this entity. Additionally, we include intraoperative video footage available on the Journal Web site to promote a better appreciation of the dramatic visual presentation and physical examination of this unusual injury.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = tibia
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7/48. Potential complication of bioabsorbable screw fixation for osteochondritis dissecans of the knee.

    The 3 cases presented describe loosening or failure of bioabsorbable screws in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). In case 1, a 17-year-old boy with OCD of the medial femoral condyle was treated with bioabsorbable screw fixation. Six months after surgery, the patient had an acute episode of pain with effusion. Arthroscopic examination revealed 2 of the 4 screws backed out, causing cartilage damage to the corresponding tibial plateau. The shafts of the remaining 2 screws had completely absorbed, leaving the unabsorbed screw heads as intra-articular loose bodies in the knee. Unpredictable and inconsistent degradation of the screws is believed to be the mechanism for screw back-out and cartilage damage.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = tibia
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8/48. Injuries to the posterolateral aspect of the knee accompanied by compression fracture of the anterior part of the medial tibial plateau.

    We present 12 cases of patients with injury to the posterolateral aspect of the knee accompanied by a compression fracture of the anterior part of the medial tibial plateau. There were 11 male patients and 1 female patient with an average age of 26 years (range, 17 to 44 years). There were 4 cases of posterolateral rotatory instability and 8 cases of straight lateral instability of the knee. The size of the compression fracture was classified into 2 types, small (8 cases) and large (4 cases). Although the mechanism of injury was considered to be hyperextension and varus force, the pattern of cruciate ligament injuries varied from case to case. The following 3 questions should be considered to determine which cruciate ligament is damaged: (1) Was the ipsilateral foot fixed to the ground? (2) Was forward inertia involved? (3) Was there a direct blow to the anteromedial aspect of the tibia or to the femur? Accompanied fractures of the medial tibial plateau were considered to have been compressed by the medial femoral condyle. The size of the accompanying compression fracture varied; 7 of 8 cases with a small-type fracture had posterior cruciate ligament injuries and 3 of 4 cases with a large-type fracture had anterior cruciate ligament injuries. The size of the fracture is determined by which point of the medial tibial plateau touched the medial femoral condyle. We propose that a compression fracture of the anterior part of the medial tibial plateau indicates a coexistent posterolateral aspect injury, and that especially a small compression fracture strongly suggests an accompanying posterior cruciate ligament injury, as well.
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ranking = 1.125
keywords = tibia
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9/48. Split biceps femoris tendon reconstruction for proximal tibiofibular joint instability.

    Recurrent instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is an infrequently diagnosed abnormality. We present a new technique for reconstructing the joint using a split biceps femoris tendon passed through a bone tunnel in both the proximal tibial metaphysis and fibular head. The case report is also presented. The procedure offers an anatomic reconstruction and firm stabilization. It allows normal motion of the proximal tibiofibular joint and preserves the normal mechanics of the ankle. This procedure is an excellent alternative to resection of the fibular head, transarticular arthrodesis, or pseudoarthrosis focus at the fibular head.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = tibia
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10/48. Neglected ruptures of the patellar tendon. A case series of four patients.

    We describe a series of four patients treated for chronic ruptures of the patellar tendon (more than 6 months old). The proximally retracted patella was brought back to its anatomic position, and the tendon stumps were repaired and protected with multiple strands of strong circlage wire, in a figure-of-8 pattern, from the quadriceps tendon to the tibial tubercle. Postoperatively, immediate mobilization without the use of a brace was initiated. The patients averaged 29 months (range, 8 to 80) from the time of injury until definitive treatment and were observed for an average of 27 months (range, 11 to 40) after treatment. Before treatment, all patients had an extensor lag of at least 20 degrees. At initial follow-up, all patients had full active extension with no extensor lag, and this did not deteriorate postoperatively or after wire removal. At the last follow-up, the average flexion was 0 degrees to 112 degrees. This technique avoids the use of autograft or allograft tissue and does not require lengthening of the quadriceps tendon.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = tibia
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