Cases reported "Kallmann Syndrome"

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1/62. X-linked kallmann syndrome and renal agenesis occurring together and independently in a large Australian family.

    Males with X-linked kallmann syndrome (XLKS) may have renal agenesis. We studied a large kindred with a history of eight males affected by XLKS born in five generations. Their XLKS was shown to be due to an intragenic mutation of the KAL-1 gene. We also documented three male neonatal deaths due to bilateral renal agenesis (BRA), five males with unilateral renal agenesis (URA), and one female with a pelvic ectopic kidney in this kindred. Of four XLKS males who had renal imaging studies, two had URA. The kindred's KAL-1 mutation was not present in three of the males with URA, the female with the ectopic kidney, nor in preserved autopsy tissue from one infant with BRA. The high frequency of renal agenesis in this family, in the presence and absence of the KAL-1 mutation, suggests an autosomal dominant or X-linked gene which may independently or co-dependently contribute to renal agenesis. ( info)

2/62. An atypical contiguous gene syndrome: molecular studies in a family with X-linked Kallmann's syndrome and X-linked ichthyosis.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Kallmann's syndrome (KS) is characterized by hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in association with anosmia or hyposmia. This entity can be associated with X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) in a contiguous gene syndrome. Genetic defects have been demonstrated on the Xp22.3 region explaining the presence of one or both entities in affected individuals. In this report we describe the molecular findings in four patients, pertaining to a three generation family, with KS which was associated with XLI in two of them. MEASUREMENTS: Enzymatic activity of steroid sulphatase was measured in leucocytes. polymerase chain reaction of the 14 exons of the Kallmann gene (KAL) and of the 5' and 3' extremes of the steroid sulphatase gene was performed in genomic dna. PCR products of the 14 exons of the KAL gene were purified and sequenced. RESULTS: Absence of steroid sulphatase activity and a complete deletion of the STS gene were demonstrated in both patients with XLI. In all subjects, the 14 KAL gene exons amplified in a normal fashion; no mutation was documented after sequencing all exons. CONCLUSIONS: Although it has been proposed recently that the X-linked form of the disease accounts for the minority of patients with Kallman's syndrome, the pedigree chart of this family demonstrates this inheritance pattern. Various possibilities are mentioned in order to explain the absence of mutation in the KAL gene. The coexistence, in this family, of Kallman's syndrome individuals and patients with Kallman's syndrome and X-linked ichthyosis is discussed. ( info)

3/62. Detection of KAL-1 gene deletion with fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    We investigated the molecular cytogenetic status of two unrelated boys and their family members because they had features consistent with kallmann syndrome but normal karyotypes. The first patient was a 6-year-old boy who suffered from ichthyosis, bilateral cryptorchidism, hyposmia, and neurologic disorders including mirror movements of the hands and nystagmus. Mild to moderate mental retardation was also noted in this boy, his mother, and maternal grandmother. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study using probes for Kallmann (KAL), steroid sulfatase, and ocular albinism type 1 all showed nullisomy on Xp22.3 in this patient, and hemizygosity in his older sister, mother, and maternal grandmother. The second patient was a 1-year-old boy who had micropenis, cryptorchidism, and hypoplastic scrotum since birth. family study disclosed a 28-year-old maternal uncle with cryptorchidism, lack of secondary sexual characteristics, and anosmia. FISH showed only the KAL gene deletion. Polymerase chain reaction analysis also showed an absence of the KAL-1 sequence. FISH is a useful tool for the detection of KAL-1 deletion in people with normal karyotypes but features consistent with kallmann syndrome. ( info)

4/62. Kallmann's syndrome: is it always for life?

    OBJECTIVE: Kallmann's syndrome (KS) is defined by the association of olfactory deficit with irreversible, congenital gonadotrophin deficiency (IHH). We present evidence for the existence of a variant form of KS, in which endogenous gonadotrophin secretion recovers spontaneously in later life. DESIGN: Longitudinal clinical study. patients: Five men with anosmia or severe hyposmia, who originally presented in their late teens or early twenties as a result of severe pubertal delay and were thus presumed to have KS. RESULTS: Spontaneous onset of endogenous gonadotrophin secretion, evidenced by progressive normalization of testicular volume and of serum testosterone concentration, occurred in these men over a period of years following the initial diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This variant form of Kallman's syndrome is not well recognized and may well be under-diagnosed. Once full virilization has been induced, males with congenital gonadotrophin deficiency whose testes have significantly increased in size should be reassessed, off androgen replacement therapy, to identify those who no longer require treatment. ( info)

5/62. A novel mutation of the KAL1 gene in kallmann syndrome.

    kallmann syndrome is defined by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia, for which three modes of transmission have been described: X-linked, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. The KAL1 gene, responsible for the X-linked form of the disease, has been isolated and its intron-exon organization determined. We report sequence analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method of the entire coding region and splice site junctions of the KAL1 gene in three males with kallmann syndrome. We found a novel mutation in one case and no mutation in the other two cases. The mutation consisted of a C to T substitution in exon 1 converting codon 66 (CAG) encoding glutamine into a termination codon (TAG)/(Q66X). As a consequence of this mutation, the function of the KAL1 protein consisting of 680 amino acids was severely truncated so as to be consistent with kallmann syndrome. As only this patient had unilateral renal hypoplasia among the three cases, this would suggest the existence of KAL1 gene mutation in this abnormality. ( info)

6/62. Successful induction of ovulation using highly purified follicle-stimulating hormone in a woman with Kallmann's syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a woman with Kallmann's syndrome who was treated successfully with highly purified FSH to achieve ovulation induction and pregnancy. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): A 32-year-old woman with Kallmann's syndrome who had been treated with oral contraceptives to prime secondary sex characteristics and genital organs since the age of 16 years. INTERVENTION(S): Highly purified FSH was administered intramuscularly for a total dose of 3,825 IU. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Follicle number and diameter. RESULT(S): Three follicles with a diameter of > 1.7 cm and an endometrial thickness of 8 mm were observed. A clinical pregnancy, which subsequently was spontaneously aborted, was obtained. CONCLUSION(S): In primed patients with Kallmann's syndrome, highly purified FSH may be a useful alternative to pulsatile GnRH or menopausal gonadotropins to achieve ovulation induction and pregnancy. ( info)

7/62. Erythropoietic protoporphyria with antinuclear antibody positivity: avoiding misdiagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    A young eunuchoid man was referred to our hospital with suspected erythropoietic protoporphyria. serum antinuclear antibody (ANA) was found to be positive immediately after the porphyria attack and disappeared 30 days later. Many authors have mentioned the coexistence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and porphyria. As these two disorders have similar clinical features, the clinician must be alert and use strict diagnostic criteria in determining the presence of SLE with porphyria. In the past, elevation of ANA was reported in the cases of acute intermittent porphyria. However, there have been no reports in the cases of erythropoietic protoporphyria. In addition, the patient was found to have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism consistent with Kallmann's syndrome. To our knowledge, this report is the first case showing the coexistence of Kallmann's syndrome and erythropoietic protoporphyria. As yet, the clinical importance of this association remains unknown. ( info)

8/62. A case of primary amenorrhea, diabetes and anosmia.

    This case details a patient with primary amenorrhea with an unusual cause. She presented at age 16 with short stature, minimal sexual development and no prior menses. Her history was significant for poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. She had been evaluated previously for growth hormone deficiency, and had received a short course of growth hormone therapy. Of greatest significance was the fact that she had also had a decreased sense of smell since her youth. Although a previous computerized tomography scan had been reported as normal, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the absence of olfactory bulbs. smell testing confirmed the absence of smell and testing of gonadotropin releasing hormone demonstrated an inadequate response. All of these features suggested kallmann syndrome. This syndrome commonly presents with delayed onset of puberty and decreased or absent sense of smell. There are also many associated features, and the disease is remarkable for its great genotypic and phenotypic variability. Current understanding of its pathogenesis, the commonly associated features of kallmann syndrome and the impact of diabetes on growth and sexual development are reviewed. ( info)

9/62. kallmann syndrome in three unrelated women and an association with femur-fibula-ulna dysostosis in one case.

    We describe three unrelated women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia; that is, kallmann syndrome. Absence of olfactory bulbs and tracts and different degrees of asymmetric dysplasia of olfactory sulci were demonstrated by MRI. Both the father of Case 1 and the maternal aunt of Case 3 had anosmia, thus autosomal dominant inheritance seems to be likely. Patient 2 had kallmann syndrome and FFU (femurfibula-ulna) dysostosis as a sporadic occurrence in her family. ( info)

10/62. A novel nonsense mutation of the KAL gene in two brothers with kallmann syndrome.

    kallmann syndrome (KS), defined by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia or hyposmia, can be caused by mutations in the KAL gene on Xp 22.3. This gene encodes an extracellular matrix glycoprotein called anosmin-1, which belongs to the class of cell adhesion molecules. In the absence of a functional KAL protein, migration of both olfactory and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons is arrested. A defective anosmin-1 molecule may also play a role in the development of synkinesia and renal agenesis, which are exclusively seen in the X-linked form of KS. We describe the clinical presentation and molecular diagnosis of the defect in two brothers with KS. An X-linked mode of transmission was assumed on the basis of synkinesia and the presence of oligomenorrhoea in the mother. A novel nonsense mutation was found in exon 13 of the KAL gene, encoding the region of the fourth fibronectin type III repeat of anosmin-1, which results in an apparently nonfunctional truncated protein. ( info)
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