Cases reported "Kidney Diseases"

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1/22. Renal granulomatous sarcoidosis in childhood: a report of 11 cases and a review of the literature.

    We analysed retrospectively 11 children with renal granulomatous sarcoidosis confirmed by renal histology in order to describe the course and prognosis of the disease. Symptomatic sarcoidosis was diagnosed at a mean age of 10.1 years. Nine children had renal involvement at the time of diagnosis. In the course of the disease, nine patients developed renal failure and mild proteinuria, seven had transient sterile leukocyturia, four showed microscopic haematuria, seven had a urinary concentrating defect, and enlarged kidneys were seen in three patients. One child had hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria, none had hypertension. light microscopy of the kidney showed interstitial infiltration by mononuclear cells in all children, interstitial fibrosis in nine patients, epithelioid granulomas in seven, tubular involvement in eight, and mild glomerular involvement in seven patients. Renal immunofluorescence was negative. Ten children received prednisone for 1-11 years. After a mean follow up of 5.5 years, three patients had entered end-stage renal failure and one had chronic insufficiency after interruption of medical supervision and prednisone therapy. CONCLUSION: Renal failure, proteinuria, leukocyturia, haematuria, and concentration defect are the prominent features of renal granulomatous sarcoidosis in children. Steroid therapy, adjusted according to disease activity, may prevent end-stage renal failure.
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2/22. A familial syndrome due to Arg648Stop mutation in the X-linked renal chloride channel gene.

    We describe a familial syndrome in two brothers who were investigated after the casual discovery of tubular proteinuria in their 1st month of life. During a follow-up of 20 and 11 years, respectively, the two children grew well and were asymptomatic, but developed the same biochemical abnormalities, i.e., tubular proteinuria and hyperphosphaturia, progressive decrease in serum phosphorus below the normal values for age, and an increase in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels over normal values. Moreover, hyperabsorptive hypercalciuria and systemic osteopenia developed and progressively worsened. In both children, at a different age, medullary nephrocalcinosis appeared. The oldest boy suffered a progressive decrease in urinary concentration ability and in glomerular filtration rate. Oral phosphate supplementation led to reversal of all biochemical abnormalities, with the exception of decreased phosphate tubular reabsorption and tubular proteinuria. With long-term phosphate supplementation, a normal bone mass was reached, while progression of nephrocalcinosis was arrested and impairment of renal function was slowed down. In a family study (siblings and parents), the only detectable abnormality was microglobinuria in the mother, thus suggesting a X-linked inheritance of this disorder. In the two probands a mutation within the renal chloride channel gene (CLCN5) was discovered.
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3/22. Hypomagnesemia due to renal disease of unknown etiology.

    A young man, investigated because of tetanic convulsions and arthritic pains, was shown to have hypomagnesemia, hypermagnesuria, hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, progressive nephrocalcinosis and chondrocalcinosis. In this syndrome, renal function was normal except for the abnormal excretion of electrolytes. Renal sodium conservation was normal. light and electron microscopic studies of renal biopsy specimens showed the presence of several abnormal tubules. Immunofluorescent staining showed deposits of immunoglobulins in the glomeruli and tubules. magnesium therapy was started under balance study conditions and resulted in decreased calciuria and complete remission of subjective symptoms. The progression of nephrocalcinosis was halted, and there was some decrease in the intra-articular calcium deposits after two years of continuous oral magnesium therapy. The administration of spironolactone decreased urinary magnesium but did not normalize it, whereas triamterene administration was without effect in this respect. The results of the morphologic and electrolyte balance studies are discussed. The patient was found to exhibit several features which have not been described before in connection with hypomagnesemia of unknown origin.
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4/22. Renal hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis in a middle-aged man.

    We report a 41-year-old man with hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, myopia and horizontal nystagmus. The hypomagnesemia was due to primary renal magnesium loss. He was diagnosed as having the syndrome of renal hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. This is a rare condition generally diagnosed by the first to third decades of life. Renal failure is common and end-stage renal disease can occur in children or young adults. The patient was treated with oral magnesium, chlorthalidone, potassium citrate and allopurinol and was followed up for 3 years. Treatment resulted in an improvement in hypercalciuria but serum magnesium level could not be normalized. The patient's renal function remains stable, with a mild degree of renal insufficiency.
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5/22. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with lactic acidosis and renal tubular dysfunction.

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children can rarely present with severe lactic acidosis in the absence of a high white blood cell count or other complications. Renal tubular dysfunction with hypercalciuria and hypocalcemia in the absence of pre-existing renal disease or concurrent medications has not been described at presentation in childhood ALL. The authors describe a 7-year-old boy with ALL presenting with severe lactic acidosis and renal tubular dysfunction, both of which were refractory to conventional management and resolved rapidly with appropriate chemotherapy.
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6/22. hypertension associated with diffuse small artery calcification: a case report.

    Renal ultrasound examination, performed following a urinary tract infection in a 4.5-year-old girl with triple X syndrome, showed multiple echogenic foci at the corticomedullary junction in both kidneys. She was asymptomatic but had hypertension with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Computerised tomographic scan revealed foci of calcification in the kidneys, spleen and pancreas. On biopsy calcification was found in the internal and external elastic laminae of the superficial temporal artery and in the internal elastic lamina of a renal arcuate artery. Intimal fibrosis was mild and focal. No other arterial calcification was demonstrated radiographically or by ultrasound. Biochemical and hormonal profiles revealed no abnormality except hypercalciuria. The aetiology and prognosis of this child's condition are unknown. Although similar ultrasound and histological appearances have been described in pseudoxanthoma elasticum and in idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy, there is no evidence that the child has either of these conditions.
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7/22. Hypercalcaemia in infancy; a presenting feature of spinal muscular atrophy.

    A 10 month old girl presented with a history of constipation from early life. She was found to be hypercalcaemic with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Her mild motor delay and hypotonia were thought to be linked to chronic hypercalcaemia, but when these features failed to improve despite normocalcaemia on a low calcium diet the possibility of neuromuscular disease was explored in more detail. She was subsequently found to have spinal muscular atrophy type 2. We suspect that the hypercalcaemia with hypercalciuria observed in this case reflects altered bone turnover secondary to reduced muscular activity.
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8/22. Examination of megalin in renal tubular epithelium from patients with dent disease.

    dent disease is characteristic for the urinary loss of low-molecular-weight proteins and calcium, leading to renal calcification and, in some patients, chronic renal failure. This disorder is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the renal chloride channel gene, CLCN5. The animal model of this disease has demonstrated the possible role of disturbed megalin expression, which is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family and is associated with renal reabsorption of a variety of proteins, in dent disease. We examined the expression of megalin in the renal tubular epithelium of two unrelated patients with dent disease. One patient, whose CLCN5 gene was completely deleted, showed significantly decreased staining of megalin compared with controls, while there was no change in another patient with partial deletion of the gene. These results demonstrated that mutation of CLCN5 in some patients with dent disease may impair the expression of megalin, resulting in abnormal calcium metabolism, manifested as hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis.
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9/22. Hyponatremic-hypertensive syndrome with extensive and reversible renal defects.

    Two young children with renal artery stenosis and severe hypertension who presented with the so-called hyponatremic-hypertensive syndrome (HHS), with marked urine and solute loss during the acute phase, are described. Both children also presented with severe high molecular proteinuria, glycosuria, and hypercalciuria, only the first symptom having prompt remission after normalization of blood pressure. In children with renal artery stenosis, HHS is associated with severe proteinuria due to hyperfiltration and more extensive tubular functional alterations. hyponatremia and acute tubulopathy may mask the presenting clinical picture of renal artery stenosis.
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10/22. A case of renal sarcoidosis: a special reference to calcium metabolism as a diagnostic and the therapeutic implications.

    sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology and is associated with a wide variety of renal disorders including nephrolithiasis, hypercalciuria, hypercalcemia, nephrocalcinosis, tubular defect, glomerulonephritis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis. We report a case of renal sarcoidosis in which we could not detect any evidence of extrarenal involvements that was diagnosed by renal biopsy and abnormal calcium metabolism incompatible with chronic renal insufficiency. On laboratory findings, decreased creatinine clearance, proteinuria, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and mildly elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were seen. serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,alpha-25 vit D) were lower and higher than normal range, respectively, whereas the patient was already in chronic renal insufficiency. He was treated with oral corticosteroid. serum ACE tended to fall, and 1,alpha-25 vit D level decreased with substantial fall of serum calcium and daily calcium excretion. In contrast, intact PTH increased slowly in accordance with a fall of serum calcium compatible with the level of renal impairment. creatinine clearance and daily excretion of protein improved. The case reported here may propose that serial measurement of serum level of 1,alpha-25 vit D, calcium level, and magnitude of daily calcium excretion into urine is a simple and meaningful tool to detect the therapeutic response in sarcoidosis with abnormal calcium metabolism.
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keywords = hypercalciuria
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