Cases reported "Kidney Diseases"

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1/102. Primary renal aspergillosis: extremely uncommon presentation in patients treated with bone marrow transplantation.

    Invasive aspergillosis affects 3 to 11% of BMT patients with a high mortality rate (60 to 95%). Extra-pulmonary disease is an unusual event, and primary renal aspergillosis is extremely uncommon. A patient with CML treated with BMT, who developed primary renal and subsequently hepatic aspergillosis, is described. Dysfunction of the mucosal barrier secondary to conditioning therapy, was a possible portal of entry for the fungus. Fine needle aspiration was very useful, as is direct microscopic examination of the urine, for diagnosis of the fungal infection. Surgical drainage of the abscess followed by antifungal therapy is the treatment of choice. Unconducive situations, such as refractory thrombocytopenia, are associated with the worst outcome in these patients.
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2/102. A familial syndrome due to Arg648Stop mutation in the X-linked renal chloride channel gene.

    We describe a familial syndrome in two brothers who were investigated after the casual discovery of tubular proteinuria in their 1st month of life. During a follow-up of 20 and 11 years, respectively, the two children grew well and were asymptomatic, but developed the same biochemical abnormalities, i.e., tubular proteinuria and hyperphosphaturia, progressive decrease in serum phosphorus below the normal values for age, and an increase in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels over normal values. Moreover, hyperabsorptive hypercalciuria and systemic osteopenia developed and progressively worsened. In both children, at a different age, medullary nephrocalcinosis appeared. The oldest boy suffered a progressive decrease in urinary concentration ability and in glomerular filtration rate. Oral phosphate supplementation led to reversal of all biochemical abnormalities, with the exception of decreased phosphate tubular reabsorption and tubular proteinuria. With long-term phosphate supplementation, a normal bone mass was reached, while progression of nephrocalcinosis was arrested and impairment of renal function was slowed down. In a family study (siblings and parents), the only detectable abnormality was microglobinuria in the mother, thus suggesting a X-linked inheritance of this disorder. In the two probands a mutation within the renal chloride channel gene (CLCN5) was discovered.
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3/102. Somatic mutations of the L12a gene in V-kappa(1) light chain deposition disease: potential effects on aberrant protein conformation and deposition.

    light chain deposition disease (LCDD) and light chain amyloidosis (AL) are disorders of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition in which normally soluble serum precursors form insoluble deposits in tissues. A common feature in both is the clonal proliferation of B-cells that produce pathogenic light chains. However, the deposits in LCDD differ from those in AL in that they are ultrastructurally granular rather than fibrillar and do not bind congo red or colocalize with amyloid P component or apolipoprotein E. The reason(s) for their differences are unknown but are likely multifactorial and related to their protein conformation and their interaction with other molecules and tissue factors in the microenvironment. knowledge of the primary structure of the light chains in LCDD is very limited. In the present study two new kappa(1) light chains from patients with LCDD are described and compared to seven other reported kappa-LCDD proteins. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of light chain GLA extracted from the renal biopsy and light chain CHO from myocardial tissue were each identical to the respective light chains isolated from the urines and to the V-region amino acid sequences translated from the cloned cDNAs obtained from bone marrow cells. The germline V-region sequences, determined from the genomic dna in both and in MCM, a previously reported kappa(1) LCDD light chain, were identical and related to the L12a germline gene. The expressed light chains in all three exhibit amino acid substitutions that arise from somatic mutation and result in increased hydrophobicity with the potential for protein destabilization and disordered conformation.
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4/102. systemic vasculitis with bilateral perirenal haemorrhage in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia.

    The cases of two patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with periarteritis nodosa-like, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody negative, systemic vasculitis, are reported. A 61 year old man was admitted with fever, diffuse myalgia, and abdominal pain. blood and bone marrow examination showed chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. Vasculitis of the gall bladder was responsible for acalculous cholecystitis. A massive spontaneous bilateral perirenal haemorrhage occurred. A 73 year old woman with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia had been followed up for one year when unexplained fever occurred. Two months after the onset of fever, sudden abdominal pain was ascribed to spontaneous bilateral renal haematoma related to bilateral renal arterial aneurysms. Neuromuscular biopsy showed non-necrotising periarteriolar inflammation. To our knowledge, systemic vasculitis has never been reported in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. In our two cases a non-random association is suggested because (a) chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome, (b) spontaneous bilateral perirenal haematoma is not a usual feature of periarteritis nodosa.
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5/102. Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis with nephropathy.

    Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis is a rare syndrome that manifests with progressive loss of carpal and tarsal bones in childhood. Affected children have arthritic-like episodes, followed by progressive deformities, radiographic osteolytic changes, and variable degrees of disability. A rare form of this disease (type III, sporadic) is associated with serious nephropathy. We present the first reported case of type III idiopathic multicentric osteolysis in a Chinese woman. The patient, a 34-year-old woman with normal mental development and no family history of bone or kidney disease, presented with a 4-day history of nausea and vomiting. She had shortening and swelling of the hands, which had occurred in childhood and persisted at the time of admission. X-ray studies showed disappearance of the carpal bones, and multiple osseous erosions of the tarsal bones. hypertension, severe azotemia, and metabolic acidosis were also noted. Advanced renal disease was documented after a series of investigations, including renal biopsy. She is now dialysis-dependent. This case illustrates the importance of early diagnosis and management of idiopathic multicentric osteolysis with nephropathy.
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6/102. Perinephric abscess due to aspergillus fumigatus.

    Invasive aspergillosis is rare in healthy children. Severe systemic complications due to aspergillosis may be seen in AIDS patients with severe neutropenia and macrophage dysfunction.
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7/102. Pediatric acute leukemia presenting as bilateral renal enlargement. Report of a case with fine needle aspiration cytologic features suggestive of megakaryocytic differentiation.

    BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia involving the kidney has rarely been reported, but acute leukemia with cytologic features suggestive of megakaryocytic differentiation has not been described before. CASE: An 8-month-old male presented with an abdominal swelling, bilateral cervical and inguinal lymphadenopathy and enlarged left epididymis. ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed a space-occupying lesion in the liver and bilateral enlargement of the kidneys. FNA smears from the right kidney and right submandibular lymph node showed numerous blast cells. Since rare blast cells were positive for myeloperoxidase, a cytodiagnosis of involvement by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was made. However, following the hematologic diagnosis of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (M7) from peripheral blood and bone marrow smear examination, FNA smears were reviewed. There were cytoplasmic blebs or protrusions in the blast cells and cytologic features suggestive of their differentiation toward micro-megakaryocytes and megakaryocytes. There was also evidence of shedding of platelets, including numerous giant platelets. The reviewed FNA cytodiagnosis was suggestive of AML (M7). CONCLUSION: Extramedullary involvement by acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (M7) can be suspected based on cytomorphologic features in FNA smears.
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8/102. Spontaneous regression of bilateral surrenal haematoma and subclinical hypoaldosteronism in a patient with renal amyloidosis secondary to familial mediterranean fever.

    This report describes a patient with familial mediterranean fever (FMF) associated with renal amyloidosis, bilaretal surrenal haematomas and hypoaldosteronism which was clinically asymptomatic. The deposition of AA amyloide was found on the renal and bone marrow biopsies. Bilateral surrenal haematoma regressed after six month from the first events. colchicine therapy controlled the attacks of the disease.
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9/102. Idiopathic carpotarsal osteolysis with nephropathy.

    Idiopathic carpotarsal osteolysis is characterized by gradual lysis and resorption of bones, occurring mainly on hands and feet. It may be sporadic or hereditary and either form can manifest renal involvement. Nephropathy is seen more frequently and is more severe in the sporadic form. We present herein two new cases of unrelated boys with the sporadic form associated with nephropathy. One of the patients had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The other patient revealed isolated proteinuria.
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10/102. Granulomatous renal disease in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common cause of primary hypogammaglobulinemia, is characterized by a decreased serum immunoglobulin level, recurrent infections, and the occurrence of various autoimmune diseases. Granulomatous disease has been reported previously in several patients with CVID, with granuloma occurring in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, central nervous system, and bone marrow. We report the first published case of renal granulomatous disease in a CVID patient presenting with subacute renal failure. Renal function partially recovered after corticosteroid treatment and intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. The pathogenesis of granulomatous disease in CVID is unclear but may involve monocyte and T-cell abnormalities.
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