Cases reported "Kidney Diseases"

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1/157. Solitary renal myofibromatosis: an unusual cause of infantile hypertension.

    INTRODUCTION: Renovascular disease accounts for the vast majority of cases of infantile hypertension with complications resulting from umbilical arterial catheterization predominating in the neonatal period and fibrodysplastic lesions of the renal artery predominating outside the neonatal period. We report a previously undescribed cause of renovascular hypertension: solitary renal myofibromatosis. CASE REPORT: A 9-month-old male infant was transported to the intensive care unit at Children's Hospital in Denver, colorado, for evaluation and treatment of a dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systemic hypertension. The child was full-term with no perinatal problems. Specifically, the child never required umbilical arterial catheterization. He was well until 6 months of age when his parents noted poor weight gain. At 9 months of age, he was evaluated at the referral hospital for failure to thrive. On examination he was noted to have a blood pressure of 170/110 mm Hg, but no other abnormalities. A chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly. Laboratory studies demonstrated normal electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. However, urinalysis demonstrated 4 protein without red blood cells. An echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular dilatation with an ejection fraction of 16%. On admission the child was noted to be cachectic. His vital signs, including blood pressure, were normal for age. The physical examination was unremarkable. serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were normal. Echocardiographic studies suggested a dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. He was started on digoxin and captopril. Subsequently, he demonstrated episodic hypertension ranging from 170/90 to 220/130 mm Hg. A repeat echocardiogram 24 hours after admission demonstrated a purely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. verapamil and nifedipine were added to the treatment regimen in an effort to better control the blood pressure without success. urine and blood for catecholamines and plasma renin activity, respectively, were sent and treatment with phentolamine instituted because of a possible pheochromocytoma. A spiral abdominal computerized tomographic scan revealed a markedly abnormal right kidney with linear streaky areas of calcification around the hilum and also an area of nonenhancement in the posterior upper pole. The adrenals and the left kidney were normal. Doppler ultrasound revealed a decrease in right renal arterial flow. The urinary catecholamines were normal and surgery was scheduled after the blood pressure was brought under control by medical treatment. At surgery, tumorous tissue and thrombosis of the renal artery were found in the right upper pole. A right nephrectomy was performed. Pathologic examination of the kidney showed the presence of a diffuse spindle cell proliferation in the interstitium of the kidney. The angiogenic/angiocentric character of the proliferation was demonstrated in several large renal vessels. The lumen of most vessels was narrowed and some vessels were totally occluded with recanalization and dystrophic calcifications observed. Immunostaining of the tumor demonstrated strong desmin and vimentin positivity and minimal actin positivity in the spindle cells. Mitotic activity was not noted in the spindle cell process. These pathologic changes were consistent with a diagnosis of infantile myofibromatosis (IM). The child's preoperative plasma renin activity was 50 712 ng/dL/h (reference range, 235-3700 ng/dL/h). DISCUSSION: The causes of systemic hypertension in infancy are many although renal causes are by far the most common. Renal arterial stenosis or thrombosis accounts for 10% to 24% of cases of infantile hypertension. renal artery thrombosis is usually a consequence of umbilical arterial catheterization, which can also lead to embolization of the renal artery. renal artery stenosis may result from fibrodysplastic lesions (74%), abdominal aortitis (9%), a complication of renal transplantation (5%), and ren
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2/157. Subcapsular hemorrhage of adult Wilms' tumor.

    Wilms' tumor is a rare malignancy of kidney in adults. It usually cannot be differentiated from other renal masses preoperatively. This is a presentation of a case of adult Wilms' tumor who developed spontaneous hemorrhage during radiological evaluation. As tumor rupture can change the stage of the tumor and alter the prognosis of the patient, urgent work-up and treatment is advised.
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3/157. Hydatid cyst of the kidney.

    We report a case of hydatidosis of the kidney and stress the importance of the different radiological modalities. In the presented case, diagnostic radiological procedures included plain radiography of the abdomen, intravenous urography, ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The combination of all the radiological findings lead to a correct pre-operative diagnosis, which is important as cyst rupture and spillage may cause anaphylactic reaction.
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4/157. Retroperitoneoscopic nephrolympholysis and ureterolysis for management of intractable filarial chyluria.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of retroperitoneoscopic lymphatic disconnection in patients with intractable filarial chyluria with the aim of reducing the morbidity of the surgery. patients AND methods: Two patients presented to us with intractable chyluria. They did not respond to conservative measures and endoscopic sclerotherapy. In view of the severe lipid and protein loss associated with recurrent bouts of chyluria, they merited surgical correction by lymphatic disconnection. Because this operation requires extensive mobilization within the retroperitoneum over a large area, it necessitates a large flank or midline incision. In order to reduce the incision-related morbidity, it was decided to undertake the procedure laparoscopically. The retroperitoneal route was chosen for its obvious advantages. RESULTS: Surgery was carried out uneventfully in both patients, with a mean operating time of 2 hours. The patients stayed in the hospital for an average of 2.5 days. Chyluria resolved in the immediate postoperative period, and they have been asymptomatic over a follow-up of 30 and 18 months. One patient had drainage of lymph for 5 days, which resolved spontaneously. CONCLUSIONS: The objectives of open surgery can be achieved by the minimally invasive approach of retroperitoneoscopy. The new approach significantly reduces the incision-related morbidity without compromising the principles of open surgery. We propose five important steps necessary to avoid recurrence and reduce postoperative morbidity.
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5/157. Use of ketorolac in renal colic.

    Intravenously administered ketorolac tromethamine provided complete pain relief to a 54-year-old man with right-sided testicular pain and nausea and vomiting. The patient had a ureteral calculus documented by computed tomography. This patient's pain initially failed to respond to intravenously administered hydromorphone hydrochloride. Subsequently, he was admitted to the hospital and had operative removal of his ureteral calculus and placement of a ureteral stent. Based on their findings and review of the literature, the authors recommend that intravenous ketorolac be used as the first-line treatment for acute renal colic in patients in whom the medication is not contraindicated.
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6/157. Neonatal intervention for severe antenatal pyelocaliectasis.

    The postnatal management of the antenatally detected ureteropelvic junction obstruction relies on several factors, including the degree of hydronephrosis detected postnatally, the renogram washout curve, and the degree of renal function. It is imperative for the urologist to review all renal scans because of the inherent pitfalls in performing and interpreting these studies. A select population demonstrating severe pyelocaliectasis and poor function exists in which an intraoperative renal biopsy may be a better predictor of future renal function when compared with the preoperative renal scan. We present a patient with poor renal function that normalized with early surgical intervention.
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7/157. A case report of nonresective staple exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with horseshoe kidney.

    A 55 year old male with a history of intermittent claudication presented with an abdominal mass, and was diagnosed by abdominal computed tomography (CT) with an abdominal aortic aneurysm accompanying horseshoe kidney. The horseshoe kidney configuration and governing vessels, urinary duct course, and right common iliac arterial stenosis were shown by methods such as angiogram, spiral CT, and intravenous pyelogram before operation. At the operation, the abdomen was opened by a median incision and, using a staple exclusion technique, the abnormal renal artery was reconstructed using 189 mm knitted Y shaped dacron graft replacement and the great saphenous vein. The isthmus was not resected. There were no post operative complications, nor was there any large decrease in renal function. Good results were obtained, and we herein report our results together with a discussion of the literature.
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8/157. smoking--a renal risk factor.

    One of the most important tasks of clinical and experimental nephrology is to identify the risk factors of progression of renal failure. A major renal risk factor which has not been sufficiently acknowledged despite increasing evidence is cigarette smoking. Diabetologists were the first to recognize the adverse effects of smoking on the kidney: both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes smoking (i) increases the risk of development of nephropathy and (ii) nearly doubles the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure. Until recently it was not known whether smoking also increases the risk to progress to end-stage renal failure in patients with primary renal disease. A retrospective multicenter European case-control study showed that smoking is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal failure in patients with inflammatory and noninflammatory renal disease, i.e. IgA glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of the smoking-related renal damage is largely unknown. The intermittent increase in blood pressure during smoking seems to play a major role in causing renal damage, but further potential pathomechanisms are presumably also operative. smoking as a renal risk factor is of great interest to diabetologists as well as nephrologists, but unfortunately so far this information has had little impact on patient management. The present article reviews the current knowledge about the renal risks of smoking and discusses the potential mechanisms of smoking-mediated renal injury.
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9/157. Long-term results of treatment of single-system ectopic ureters.

    Single-system ureteral ectopia (UE) encompasses a spectrum of malformations involving the bladder trigone, ureter, and kidney. The clinical presentation is variable, and both diagnostic and therapeutic problems are common. Reduced renal function in these patients may result from primary dysplasia, obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, or recurrent infection. Based on our experience of seven patients, suggestions for diagnostic procedures and criteria for renal saving versus nephrectomy are offered. The relationship between ostium localization, renal function, and long-term results was investigated. From 1972 to 1990, five female and two male patients were studied. During the same period, 31 patients with UE and duplex kidneys were seen. Ages ranged from 1 day to 7 years. A ureteric opening into the bladder neck was associated with dilatation of the ureter and renal pelvis. Two patients had vaginal ectopia and severe renal dysplasia. In one, a cyst of the vaginal wall (Gardner's cyst) was detected at birth. A male newborn had multicystic renal dysplasia on the left and ureteric ectopia to the ductus deferens on the right side. To our knowledge, he is the first patient reported with renal function totally dependent on a kidney with severe UE. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 9 years. One patient died in the postoperative period because of renal failure and sepsis. All the others are well and have normal creatinine values. Improvement of renal function was noted after ureteral reimplantation (URI) in patients with bladder-neck ectopia. The numbers of infections were also drastically reduced. Our observations suggest that the combination of ultrasound, cyst urethrography, and cystoscopy will be diagnostic in most patients. A suspicion of UE should be raised in symptomatic patients with apparently solitary kidneys, enuresis ureterica, or atypical obstructive uropathy. Reduced renal function in some patients with ectopia to the bladder neck will improve after URI. This may be of importance in patients with bilateral anomalies and marginal renal function.
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10/157. Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm: a fatal sequel to concomitant prostatic and renal aspergillosis. Case report and review of the literature.

    We report the first case of aspergillus mycotic aneurysm as a sequel to concomitant prostatic and renal aspergillosis. The patient had undergone left nephrectomy and transurethral resection of prostate for aspergillus infection one year ago. He again presented with LUTS and backache and clinical examination showed visible pulsations in the epigastrium. CT-scan abdomen showed a pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta. The aneurysm was repaired in situ with homografting and omental wrap. However, the patient succumbed to septicemia on the tenth postoperative day. Adjunctive surgery is usually essential as medical management alone has been unsatisfactory. It is imperative that these cases should be followed closely to detect the disease recurrence and complications at the earliest.
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