Cases reported "Kidney Diseases"

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1/84. Clinical and radiological findings in patients with gas forming renal abscess treated conservatively.

    PURPOSE: Emphysematous pyelonephritis in diabetics is considered a potentially lethal infection. mortality rates of patients treated conservatively approaches 80% in some series. These patients often present with signs of sepsis or septic shock. In contrast, gas forming renal abscess is rare, with patients presenting entirely differently from those with emphysematous pyelonephritis. To our knowledge this process has been previously described only in isolated case reports. We describe a series of 5 patients with this distinct process. MATERIALS AND methods: We reviewed the clinical and radiological features of 5 patients with gas forming renal abscesses. RESULTS: Each patient presented with diabetes mellitus with initial blood glucose ranging from 313 to 552 mg./dl., fever (average 101F), flank or abdominal pain and pyuria. No patient had evidence of septic shock at hospitalization. escherichia coli was the documented organism in each case. Mild renal insufficiency was noted in most patients based on serum creatinine. Radiological evaluation revealed gas filled pockets within the renal parenchyma, which were most effectively shown by computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen. There was no radiological evidence of pus. Percutaneous drainage of an abscess in 1 case did not produce any purulent material or alter the clinical course. Each patient responded to correction of the underlying metabolic abnormalities with intravenous antibiotics (average 23 days) followed by prolonged oral antibiotic therapy (average 9 weeks). In contrast to the management of emphysematous pyelonephritis, surgical or percutaneous drainage was not necessary. Serial CT revealed complete resolution of gas in the parenchyma within 6 months in patients with long-term followup. Of note, gas was persistent on CT months after infection had clinically resolved. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a unique entity within the spectrum of pyelonephritis. The clinical appearance of gas forming abscesses within the renal parenchyma without liquefaction in diabetic patients was remarkably benign compared to the radiographic appearance of the disease process. Conservative management with intravenous and oral antibiotics was successful in each patient, avoiding the need for invasive intervention.
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ranking = 1
keywords = pyelonephritis
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2/84. Nephrobronchial fistula secondary to xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

    We report a case of staghorn nephrolithiasis that evolved into xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with perinephric abscess, nephrobronchial fistula, and lung abscess. The patient was an intravenous drug abuser who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus, without evidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He presented with a 2-month history of untreated repeated episodes of left flank pain and hyperpyrexia. Treatment involved left nephrectomy, debridement of abscess, tube drainage, and intravenous antibiotics. The patient illustrates the need to consider untreated nephrolitiasis as a predisposing factor for pulmonary complications.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = pyelonephritis
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3/84. Calyceal diverticula in children: unusual features and complications.

    Calyceal diverticulum is a relatively rare lesion that is usually asymptomatic but can assume clinical significance if drainage is impaired. Three patients are presented with unusual complications directly referable to a calyceal diverticulum. One child had a mobile calculus. In 2 others, intrarenal inflammatory masses developed in the area previously occupied by a calyceal diverticulum. One of these children had proved xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and the other had an infected diverticulum.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = pyelonephritis
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4/84. Renal mucormycosis in the hiv patient.

    mucormycosis is an increasingly recognized opportunistic infection. It usually affects patients with debilitating conditions such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and extensive burns. Mucor infection has also been described in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) patients. The most common clinical presentations are the cerebral, cutaneous, and renal forms. We describe a unique case of bilateral renal mucormycosis presenting with renal failure in an hiv-infected patient. In the immunosuppressed host, a history of intravenous (IV) drug abuse associated with symptoms of pyelonephritis should alert the clinician to the possibility of mucor infection. Blood and urine culture are often negative. The diagnosis is made histologically in most cases. The treatment of hiv patients with mucormycosis and renal failure includes hemodialysis, nephrectomy, and intravenous amphotericin in addition to antiretroviral therapy. Bilateral renal involvement with Mucor carries a poor prognosis.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = pyelonephritis
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5/84. Bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis with perirenal abscess cured by conservative therapy.

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare life-threatening infection of the renal parenchyma. It usually affects unilateral kidney and occurs mostly in diabetic patients. It is characterized by the presence of gas within the renal parenchyma and requires prompt diagnosis and early aggressive therapy. Bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis is even more rare and is associated with high mortality. We describe a case of a 62-year-old diabetic woman who presented with nonketotic hyperosmolar coma and bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis caused by klebsiella pneumoniae. diagnosis of bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis was confirmed by an abdominal computed tomographic scan and microbiologic studies. Our patient was successfully treated using percutaneous catheter drainage and long-term antibiotic therapy.
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ranking = 2
keywords = pyelonephritis
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6/84. A new cause of curvilinear renal calcification: calcified hydrocalycosis.

    Although many causes of curvilinear renal calcifications have been described, calcified hydrocalycosis mimicking hydatid cyst has not previously been reported. We report a case of hydrocalycosis which was appeared as a curvilinear calcified cystic lesion resulted from staghorn calculus associated with xanthogranolomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) on intravenous pyelography (IVU) and computed tomography (CT).
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = pyelonephritis
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7/84. Severe renal impairment in the case of classic polyarteritis nodosa.

    A 14-year-old boy with classic polyarteritis nodosa (cPAN) and a clinical picture resembling rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is described. He had severe hypertension, malaise, weight loss, fever, myalgia, and rapid deterioration of renal function. Renal biopsy revealed acute necrotizing vasculitis. Angiography showed small saccular aneurysmatic dilatations in the intrarenal branches of the right renal artery and the intrahepatic branches of the hepatic artery. cPAN was diagnosed and pulse methylprednisolone (MP), pulse cyclophosphamide (CYC) and subsequently oral prednisolone were given. Clinical and laboratory findings improved dramatically and remission was attained rapidly. The patient has remained in remission for the last 11 months. cPAN should be considered in patients who present with severe systemic symptoms and hypertension. Progressive renal insufficiency can occur during the acute course of cPAN due to renal vascular involvement without glomerulonephritis. Prompt and aggressive corticosteroid and cytotoxic therapy is essential to suppress disease activity and to maintain remission.
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ranking = 9.1744788873678E-5
keywords = necrotizing
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8/84. Redefining papillorenal syndrome: an underdiagnosed cause of ocular and renal morbidity.

    PURPOSE: To report ocular and renal findings specific to the inheritable entity called papillorenal (also known as renal-coloboma) syndrome and relate these to a common cause. DESIGN: Observational case series and genetic study. PARTICIPANTS: Two unrelated probands presenting with absent central retinal vessels and 11 available family members. TESTING: Doppler ultrasonographic imaging of the optic nerves and kidneys, fluorescein angiography, and genetic testing for PAX2 mutations were performed. In selected cases, indocyanine green angiography, scanning laser ophthalmoscope perimetry, Retinal Thickness Analyzer measurements, visual evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging were also performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Better defined characteristics of the papillorenal syndrome. RESULTS: Numerous cilioretinal vessels were present with rudimentary or absent central retinal vessels. Superonasal visual field defects, typical for papillorenal syndrome, corresponded to inferotemporal areas of anomalous retinal and choroidal perfusion and hypoplastic retina. Renal hypoplasia was discovered in two affected members of one family (with previously unsuspected renal failure in one case), and recurrent pyelonephritis was discovered in four affected members of the other family. No PAX2 mutations were detected. CONCLUSIONS: In the papillorenal syndrome, the hereditary absence of central retinal vessels may be missed, leading to confusion with isolated coloboma, low-tension glaucoma, and morning glory anomaly. Greater awareness of this syndrome will avoid unneeded glaucoma therapy, allow earlier recognition of renal diseases, and allow genetic counseling. We propose that the papillorenal syndrome is a primary dysgenesis that causes vascular abnormalities predominantly affecting the eye, kidney, and urinary tract, leading to hypoplasia of these structures. The absence of defects in the PAX2 gene in these families suggests that mutations in other genes may also be responsible for this syndrome.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = pyelonephritis
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9/84. ANCA-associated necrotizing/granulomatous glomerulonephritis in an elderly patient; importance of the renal biopsy.

    ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis may present initially with renal symptoms, especially in elderly patients. We report a case of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis in an 80-year-old female presenting with renal insufficiency and proteinuria. There was no evidence of systemic illness at admission. The major finding in the renal biopsy was the presence of granulomas. Additional testing for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) was suggested. The ANCA test was positive confirming the diagnosis of ANCA-associated necrotizing/granulomatous glomerulonephritis. The patient responded well to adequate treatment with immunosuppressive therapy. This case demonstrates the importance of the renal biopsy in cases of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis presenting with renal symptoms.
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ranking = 0.00045872394436839
keywords = necrotizing
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10/84. Gas-containing renal stones treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy: case report.

    We present a rare case of E. coli emphysematous pyelonephritis with sepsis. The radiologic presentation consisted of multiple radiolucent gas-filled, free-floating uric acid calculi in a hydronephrotic renal pelvis. The infection was treated by intravenous fluids and antibiotics and percutaneous nephrostomy drainage. The patient was rendered stone free by percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ultrasound lithotripsy.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = pyelonephritis
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