Cases reported "Kidney Failure, Chronic"

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1/20. Acute hyperkalemia associated with intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid therapy.

    Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (Amicar) is used to treat severe hemorrhage refractory to usual medical management. This antifibrinolytic drug has been associated with a number of renal complications. However, there are no descriptions of this medication causing hyperkalemia. This report describes the development of hyperkalemia in a patient with underlying chronic renal insufficiency treated with intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid. The patient, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, had no other obvious cause for the acute increase in serum potassium concentration. Based on data in animals and humans, the cationic amino acids lysine and arginine have been shown to enter muscle cells in exchange for potassium and lead to hyperkalemia through a shift of potassium from the intracellular to the extracellular space. Epsilon-aminocaproic acid, a synthetic amino acid structurally similar to lysine and arginine, also has been noted to cause an acute increase in serum potassium in anephric dogs infused with this medication. It is probable that the mechanism underlying the increase in serum potassium with epsilon-aminocaproic acid is also based on the shift of potassium from the intracellular to the extracellular space. Hence, it appears that intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid can also cause hyperkalemia in humans.
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2/20. Five cases of calciphylaxis and a review of the literature.

    calciphylaxis is a rare phenomenon of cutaneous necrosis that typically occurs in association with renal failure and has a poor prognosis. We report 5 new cases of calciphylaxis that illustrate the important clinical and histopathologic features of the disease. All patients had end-stage renal failure at the time that purpuric plaques and nodules were noted; these subsequently progressed to necrotic ulcers with eschars. All skin biopsy specimens showed varying degrees of calcification of the medial layer of blood vessel walls in the dermis and subcutaneous fat. Neither the product of serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations nor parathyroid hormone levels correlated temporally with the clinical observations in every case, emphasizing the importance of clinical-histopathologic correlation. Although certain features of calciphylaxis in humans resemble the animal model originally proposed, there are also some crucial differences. We review the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical and histopathologic features, and treatment of this disease.
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3/20. Reproducible erythroid aplasia caused by mycophenolate mofetil.

    anemia secondary to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was recently described in experimental animals. A clinical association between MMF and anemia has been observed, but there are no proven reports. We describe a girl with chronic graft failure who developed erythroid aplasia under immunosuppression with MMF. She showed prompt resolution when MMF was discontinued and a recurrence of this clinical course when MMF was restarted. As re-challenge with a medication is the most definitive approach for showing a direct relationship between the drug and the side effect, this case clearly demonstrates that MMF can cause erythroid aplasia.
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4/20. Iron-mobilizing properties of the gadolinium-DTPA complex: clinical and experimental observations.

    BACKGROUND: gadolinium (Gd) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are considered to be safe in patients with impaired renal function. Our study investigates a mechanism of severe iron intoxication with life-threatening serum iron levels in a haemodialysis patient following MRI with Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) administration. His previous history was remarkable for multiple blood transfusions and biochemical evidence of iron overload. We hypothesized that Gd-DTPA may have an iron-mobilizing effect in specific conditions of iron overload combined with prolonged exposure to the agent. methods: For the in vitro study, Gd-DTPA was added to mice liver homogenate and iron metabolism parameters were measured after incubation in comparison with the same samples incubated with saline only. For the in vivo study, an experimental model of acute renal failure in iron-overloaded rats was designed. Previously iron-overloaded and normally fed rats underwent bilateral nephrectomy by renal pedicle ligation, followed by Gd-DTPA or saline injection. Iron and iron saturation levels were checked before and 24 h after Gd-DTPA or vehicle administration. RESULTS: Significant mobilization of iron from mice liver tissue homogenate in mixtures with Gd in vitro was seen in the control (saline) and in the experimental (Gd) groups (513 /-99.1 vs 1117.8 /-360.8 microg/dl, respectively; P<0.05). Administration of Gd-DTPA to iron-overloaded rats after renal pedicle ligation caused marked elevation of serum iron from baseline 143 /-3.4 to 570 /-8 microg/dl (P<0.0001). There were no changes of the named parameter, either in iron-overloaded anuric rats after saline injection or in normal diet uraemic animals, following Gd-DTPA administration. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of iron overload and lack of adequate clearance of Gd chelates may cause massive liberation of iron with dangerous elevation of free serum iron. It is highly recommended that after Gd contrast study, end-stage renal disease patients with probable iron overload should undergo prompt and intensive haemodialysis for prevention of this serious complication.
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5/20. sirolimus-induced thrombotic microangiopathy in a renal transplant recipient.

    A rare but well-documented serious adverse reaction to the administration of the calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients is the development of medication-induced thrombotic microangiopathy. The recently introduced immunosuppressive medication sirolimus has a very similar molecular structure to tacrolimus and also binds to the same intracellular proteins. Despite these similarities with tacrolimus, sirolimus has a different side-effect profile and reportedly lacks documented specific renal toxicity. This is a case report of the isolated administration of sirolimus without a concomitant calcineurin inhibitor being associated with the development of renal transplant biopsy-proven thrombotic microangiopathy. The patient is a 47-year-old African-American woman whose primary cause of renal failure was not thrombotic micrangiopathy, and she received a 5-antigen mismatched cadaveric renal transplant. Because of preexisting nephrosclerosis in the renal transplant, this patient was never administered a calcineurin inhibitor but was always maintained on sirolimus. With recent animal data showing that sirolmus can be nephrotoxic in a renal ischemic-reperfusion model (similar to what happens with a renal transplant), the authors speculate on a mechanism for this adverse reaction.
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6/20. Subacute endocarditis due to erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a rare cause of endocarditis. Most cases were observed in people working with animals. We report a case in a 45-year old man without any exposure to animals. He was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnoea. blood cultures were drawn following fever on day 8 of hospitalisation. erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was cultured and echocardiography showed a vegetation on the mitral valve. Appropriate antibiotic therapy and surgical treatment led to a good outcome of the infection.
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keywords = animal
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7/20. A case of pasteurella multocida peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVES: Two episodes of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis, which occurred four months apart and were both due to pasteurella multocida, were noted in a 73 year old woman. This report aims to describe the clinical history of these episodes and the microbiological investigations that were undertaken. The relevant literature will also be discussed. methods AND RESULTS: Basic microbiological tests identified the organism as pasteurella multocida, and further work at a specialist laboratory classified it as pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis confirmed that the strains isolated from the two clinical episodes originated from the same clone. A literature search was performed, looking particularly for patients who experienced more than one episode of peritonitis caused by Pasteurella spp, whether due to recurrence or re-infection. CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the infection resulted from a domestic cat, as there was evidence of a cat bite to the dialysis tubing in the period between the two episodes. Re-infection with two identical strains of pasteurella is more probable than relapse, for reasons discussed. Strict hygiene and avoiding contact between dialysis tubing and domestic animals must be emphasised to try to prevent pasteurella and other animal-associated infections in this already vulnerable population.
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keywords = animal
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8/20. Cryptosporidium infection in renal transplant patients.

    cryptosporidium parvum, an intracellular protozoan parasite, is a significant cause of gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Transmission can occur from an infected person, animal or fecally contaminated environment. The clinical manifestations of cryptosporidiosis are dependent on the immunologic state of the host. infection among immunocompetent hosts results in diarrhea that is typically self-limited. In immunocompromised hosts, however, the infection may be protracted and life-threatening with no reliable antimicrobial therapy. In transplant patients, a course of antimicrobial therapy along with concurrent reduction in immunosuppression optimize immunologic status and may potentially lead to resolution of the infection.
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9/20. Suppression of thyrotropin by morphine in a severely stressed patient.

    Opiates suppress TSH in experimental animals but are reported to increase TSH in human subjects. We describe a patient in severe pain treated with morphine, whose previously normal TSH fell to a level usually associated with hyperthyroidism. After returning to a normal concentration, TSH again decreased with morphine administration. This suggests that, in contrast to the stimulation of TSH secretion that has been reported in unstressed experimental subjects, morphine can inhibit TSH secretion during stress in man as it does in experimental animals. This observation is consistent with the known sensitization of opiate receptors by stress. Consideration should be given to the possibility that severe suppression of TSH by opiates in stressed patients may induce clinically significant central hypothyroidism.
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keywords = animal
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10/20. Early renal failure after domino hepatic transplantation using the liver from a compound heterozygous patient with primary hyperoxaluria.

    BACKGROUND: To cover the shortage of cadaveric organs, new approaches to expand the donor pool are needed. Here we report on a case of domino liver transplantation (DLT) using an organ harvested from a compound heterozygous patient with primary hyperoxaluria (PHO), who underwent combined liver and kidney transplantation. The DLT recipient developed early renal failure with oxaluria. The time to the progression to oxalosis with renal failure in such situations is unknown, but, based on animal data, we hypothesize that calcineurin inhibitors may play a detrimental role. methods: A cadaveric liver and kidney transplantation was performed in a 52-year-old male with PHO. His liver was used for a 64-year-old patient with a non-resectable, but limited cholangiocarcinoma. RESULTS: While the course of the PHO donor was uneventful, in the DLT recipient early post-operative, dialysis-dependent renal failure with hyperoxaluria developed. histology of a kidney biopsy revealed massive calcium oxalate crystal deposition as the leading aetiological cause. CONCLUSIONS: DLT using PHO organs for marginal recipients represents a possible therapeutic approach regarding graft function of the liver. However, it may negatively alter the renal outcome of the recipient in an unpredictable manner, especially with concomitant use of cyclosporin. Therefore, we suggest that, although DLT should be promoted, PHO organs are better excluded from such procedures.
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