Cases reported "Kidney Failure, Chronic"

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1/19. liver-kidney-transplantation in type 1 primary hyperoxaluria: description and comments on a case.

    BACKGROUND: Primary hyperoxaluria leads to oxalosis, a systemic illness with fatal prognosis in uremic youngsters because of systemic complications. Case report: A 14-year old boy with primary type 1 hyperoxaluria who had a long-lasting history of nephrolithiasis and passed from normal renal function to end-stage renal disease within 7 months. MEASUREMENT of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) catalytic activity in the liver biopsy disclosed very low activity which was not. responsive to pyridoxin., thus the patient entered onto a priority national waiting list for liver-kidney transplantation and a week later received a combined transplant. In order to increase body clearance of oxalate, the patient underwent medical treatment to increase urine oxalate solubility (sodium and potassium citrate oral therapy, magnesium supplementation and increase of diuresis) and intensive dialysis both before and after transplantation. comment: The medical approach to the treatment of this rare illness is discussed. Since the major risk for the grafted kidney is related to the oxalate burden, i.e. oxalate deposition from the body deposits to the kidney that becomes irreversibly damaged, treatment consists of increasing the body clearance of oxalate both by increasing oxalate solubility in the urine and with intensive dialysis performed both before and after combined transplantation. To the same extent (by limiting body oxalate deposits), a relatively early (native GFR 20-25 ml/minute) transplantation is advisable.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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2/19. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 causing end-stage renal disease in a 45-year-old patient.

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by deficiency of peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase which is in humans exclusively expressed in liver cells. The disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and initial symptoms usually occur in early childhood. Up to the age of 25 years, 90% of the patients are symptomatic, and many patients develop end-stage renal failure. Pronounced medical care is necessary in PH1 patients to prevent generalized oxalosis with complications due to bone disease and peripheral gangrene. The rather short survival of patients on hemodialysis is caused by sudden arrhythmias and heart block. As no dialysis procedure is able to remove the daily produced oxalate, early transplantation is mandatory. Our 45-year-old patient is remarkable on the basis of the late manifestations of PH1. The diagnosis was delayed by unspecific symptoms of nephrolithiasis with recurrent pyelonephritis. Clinical course and diagnostic cornerstones of primary hyperoxaluria are outlined. The principles of conservative treatment and experiences with dialysis and transplantation are discussed.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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3/19. Chronic renal failure secondary to oxalate nephropathy: a preventable complication after jejunoileal bypass.

    Enteric hyperoxaluria is a commonly seen adverse event after the jejunoileal bypass procedure. The increased concentration of urinary oxalate predisposes bypass patients to various renal complications such as nephrolithiasis and oxalate nephropathy. If not diagnosed and appropriately treated, these complications can lead to irreversible renal damage. We describe 3 patients in whom severe renal complications developed with irreversible compromise of renal function after a jejunoileal bypass. patients who undergo a jejunoileal bypass require lifelong follow-up with close monitoring of their renal function. Marked decline in renal function mandates prompt investigation and aggressive intervention, including reversal of the jejunoileal bypass if necessary. Chronic renal failure secondary to oxalate nephropathy is preventable and treatable but may require conversion of a jejunoileal bypass to a more current form of bypass.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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4/19. Primary hyperoxaluria: a rare but important cause of nephrolithiasis.

    We report on a middle-aged man with end-stage renal failure apparently secondary to recurrent renal stones. He developed systemic oxalosis soon after commencing dialysis. The diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 was supported by the finding of high dialysate glycolate excretion. The patient subsequently received an isolated cadaveric renal transplant, but the outcome was a rapid recurrence of oxalosis and early graft failure. Although isolated liver or renal transplantation in addition to various adjuvant measures may be considered in the early stage, combined liver-kidney transplantation remains the only definitive therapy for a patient with end-stage renal failure and systemic oxalosis due to hyperoxaluria type 1. This case illustrates the possible late presentation of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and the poor outcome with isolated renal transplantation after the development of systemic oxalosis. One should thus have a high index of suspicion in patients with recurrent renal stones of this rare, but nevertheless important, entity.
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ranking = 4
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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5/19. endocytosis of calcium oxalate crystals and proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells in a patient with type 1 primary hyperoxaluria.

    A patient with primary hyperoxaluria who received a liver-kidney transplant is presented. A postoperative renal biopsy showed apparent tubular cell endocytosis of calcium oxalate crystals and cell proliferation, indicating that renal epithelial cells do not perceive urinary crystals as inert. Such cellular responses to crystals may have a role in nephrolithiasis.
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6/19. Primary hyperoxaluria in a 27-year-old woman.

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting in precipitation of insoluble oxalate crystals in the joints, kidneys, heart, eyes, and skin. Two thirds of patients have calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis by age 5 years and 80% die of renal failure by age 20 years. Rarely, the disease will present in adulthood, with the onset of symptoms occurring as late as the sixth decade. We present a 27-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease who presented to the dermatology department for the evaluation of a reticular rash shortly after beginning peritoneal dialysis. Associated symptoms included arthralgias and episodic acral cyanosis. Previous kidney and skin biopsy specimens revealed crystalline deposition, however, the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria was not entertained until an atrial mass was found to have the same crystalline material. This report reviews primary hyperoxaluria and underscores the importance of recognizing the disease as a cause of renal failure in a patient with livedo reticularis and skin lesions resembling calciphylaxis. Early recognition of the disease is important because combined liver-kidney transplantation may achieve long-term survival.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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7/19. Pseudotuberculous pyelonephritis associated with nephrolithiasis.

    This report describes a 40-year-old man with an unusual form of granulomatous pyelonephritis, associated with nephrolithiasis, resulting in end-stage kidney disease and right pretransplant nephrectomy. The kidney specimen contained a staghorn calculus and showed chronic inflammation with confluent caseating granulomas and multinucleated giant cells, resembling renal tuberculosis. However, neither tubercle bacilli nor other microorganisms were demonstrated in the renal tissue or in urine cultures. Because these findings do not support a tuberculous etiology of the granulomatous pyelonephritis, we conclude that this patient had a pseudotuberculous reaction as a consequence of nephrolithiasis.
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ranking = 6
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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8/19. Atypical features of primary hyperoxaluria in end-stage renal disease.

    Two case histories of patients with end-stage renal disease subsequently found to have primary hyperoxaluria are reported. In the setting of renal failure, the diagnosis is both difficult, due to diminished oxalate excretion, and important, because of frequent graft loss due to oxalate deposition after renal transplantation. The diagnosis was obtained by renal and bone biopsies. plasma oxalate levels were normal in one patient and the other patient presented with extensive cystic bone lesions. Primary hyperoxaluria should be considered whenever nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis are associated with end-stage renal disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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9/19. X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with renal failure.

    BACKGROUND AND methods. nephrolithiasis may occur as a consequence of a number of hereditary disorders. We describe a large kindred from northern new york with hereditary nephrolithiasis accompanied by urinary concentrating defects, nephrocalcinosis, renal insufficiency, and renal wasting of potassium, phosphate, calcium, and uric acid. The pattern of inheritance was established by examining the patients and their records and interviewing family members. Selected members of the family were evaluated in detail, with measurements of erythrocyte cation fluxes and carbonic anhydrase (carbonate dehydratase) activity. RESULTS. The kindred consisted of 162 family members from six generations. All nine affected persons were male and appeared to have inherited the disease from their mothers. No affected man transmitted the gene to a son, but the daughters of affected men were carriers. The patients presented in childhood with calcium nephrolithiasis and proteinuria, with progression to nephrocalcinosis, urinary concentrating defects, and renal insufficiency. Renal biopsies revealed tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and glomerulosclerosis; the characteristic features of other forms of hereditary nephritis were absent. Abnormalities in the renal excretion of calcium, phosphate, potassium, and uric acid were found only in the adult members of the kindred, although renal biopsies were abnormal even in younger members. In one patient who has had a renal transplant for seven years, the disease has not recurred. CONCLUSIONS. This kindred manifested an X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with renal failure, a new form of hereditary renal disease. Most of the identifiable physiologic abnormalities occurred after the development of nephrolithiasis and renal insufficiency and may not be of pathogenetic importance.
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ranking = 8
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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10/19. Case history of a prune-belly syndrome with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment of allograft nephrolithiasis.

    This is a case history of a prune-belly syndrome with multiple urologic disorders leading to a renal transplant due to a chronic renal failure at age 8. After four allograft pyelolithotomies he was referred to us with a staghorn stone in the same graft. He was successfully treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and a percutaneous nephrostomy and is now stone-free.
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ranking = 4
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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