Cases reported "Kidney Failure, Chronic"

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1/181. diagnosis and management of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in infancy.

    We report a case of a 6-month-old infant who presented with failure to thrive due to end-stage renal disease as a result of primary hyperoxaluria type 1. The infant was managed with a combined daily hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis prescription in order to manage the total body oxalate burden. Medical management included oral pyridoxine, aggressive hydration and nutritional supplementation via an enteral feeding tube. At one year of age the infant underwent a combined liver/kidney transplantation with intra- and daily post-operative hemodialysis to prevent oxalate deposition in the newly transplanted organs. The post-operative course was complicated by gross hematuria and increased hyperoxaluria, requiring an increase in hydration and thiazide diuretics. This infant received a combination of dialysis modalities which was designed to lower the potential oxalate burden prior to transplantation. This case illustrates the difficulty in medical management of an infant pre- and post-combined liver/kidney transplantation.
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2/181. Epidural hematoma following epidural catheter placement in a patient with chronic renal failure.

    PURPOSE: We report a case of epidural hematoma in a surgical patient with chronic renal failure who received an epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia. Symptoms of epidural hematoma occurred about 60 hr after epidural catheter placement. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 58-yr-old woman with a history of chronic renal failure was admitted for elective abdominal cancer surgery. Preoperative laboratory values revealed anemia, hematocrit 26%, and normal platelet, PT and PTT values. General anesthesia was administered for surgery, along with epidural catheter placement for postoperative analgesia. Following uneventful surgery, the patient completed an uneventful postoperative course for 48 hr. Then, the onset of severe low back pain, accompanied by motor and sensory deficits in the lower extremities, alerted the anesthesia team to the development of an epidural hematoma extending from T12 to L2 with spinal cord compression. Emergency decompressive laminectomy resulted in recovery of moderate neurologic function. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first case of epidural hematoma formation in a surgical patient with chronic renal failure (CRF) and epidural postoperative analgesia. The only risk factor for the development of epidural hematoma was a history of CRF High-risk patients should be monitored closely for early signs of cord compression such as severe back pain, motor or sensory deficits. An opioid or opioid/local anesthetic epidural solution, rather than local anesthetic infusion alone, may allow continuous monitoring of neurological function and be a prudent choice in high-risk patients. If spinal hematoma is suspected, immediate MRI or CT scan should be done and decompressive laminectomy performed without delay.
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3/181. methemoglobinemia after axillary block with bupivacaine and additional injection of lidocaine in the operative field.

    methemoglobinemia may occur after the administration of various drugs, including some local anesthetics. We report a patient with chronic renal failure and ischemic heart disease who developed clinically significant methemoglobinemia after an axillary block with bupivacaine and additional injection of lidocaine in the operative field. Although the two local anesthetics usually do not cause methemoglobinemia, we suspect that the displacement of lidocaine from protein binding by bupivacaine, in combination with metabolic acidosis and treatment with other oxidants, was the reason for the development of methemoglobinemia.
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4/181. Management of dialysis access-associated steal syndrome: use of intraoperative duplex ultrasound scanning for optimal flow reduction.

    Dialysis access-associated steal syndrome (DASS) is an uncommon complication after the creation of an arteriovenous fistula and can cause irreversible ischemic damage in severe cases. Dialysis access-associated steal syndrome has been managed with the surgical reduction of the volume flow in the fistula, but this is associated with a certain incidence of access loss. Several methods are described to achieve the delicate balance between essential flow in the fistula and an adequate limb perfusion pressure. We have developed a new method with duplex ultrasound scanning to quantitate the reduction in volume flow, which will allow effective dialysis and provide adequate limb perfusion. The preoperative assessment was reproduced on the operating table with intraoperative duplex scanning. A 65-year-old woman who underwent this treatment has had resolution of her ischemic symptoms and maintains long-term patency of her dialysis access.
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5/181. A stormy transplant case with happy ending.

    A 12-year-old female patient with end-stage renal failure whose primary disease was reflux nephropathy, was first admitted for augmentation cystoplasty by using an ileum segment because of contracted urinary bladder. Four months later, she had a renal transplantation from her father on March 28th 1997. The first three days after the operation were uneventful. On the fourth day, she presented a severe rejection episode and was treated with steroid and ATG. A urinary fistula developed and she underwent surgery again on the 14th postoperative day. At surgery, apical resection omentoplasty nephrostomy DJ replacement were performed. The postoperative period after the second operation was full of problems for both the patient and the transplantation team. She was discharged from hospital on the 40th postoperative day with excellent renal function (a serum creatinine level of 1 mg/dl) and with full recovery.
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6/181. anesthesia for ruptured cerebral aneurysm surgery associated with chronic renal failure.

    The management of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing cerebral aneurysm surgery has been documented on only a few occasions. We report a 58-year-old man with CRF and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to aneurysm rupture. We describe the patient's perioperative anesthetic management, discussing the current methods for maintaining an appropriate cerebral perfusion pressure and for preventing rehemorrhage from the aneurysm. We suggest that heparin-aided hemodialysis be avoided in these cases.
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7/181. Bilateral nephrectomy, peritoneal dialysis and subsequent cadaveric renal transplantation for treatment of renal failure due to polycystic kidney disease requiring continuous ventilation.

    We report here on a newborn with end-stage renal failure due to autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, also causing ventilation-requiring respiratory distress. peritoneal dialysis was able to keep the newborn alive but not wean it from the respirator. After removal of both huge kidneys, dialysis became more effective and allowed the neonate to be extubated only 5 days later. It was decided to register the baby for a pediatric cadaveric kidney transplant when it reached 6 kg/body wt or to perform a living related transplant if no such kidney became available and the baby grew to 7 kg/body wt. At the age of 9 months and a weight of 6 kg a cadaveric kidney from a 20-month-old donor became available and was transplanted extraperitoneally. Prophylactic immunosuppression included cyclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. pneumonia on post-operative day 10 required respiratory care for several days and acute rejection requiring peritoneal dialysis. Both complications were controlled with antibiotics and conversion from cyclosporin to tacrolimus and a temporary increase in steroids. Thirteen months later the child is alive and well with a serum creatinine of 0.6 mg%. From this experience we would recommend early removal of both polycystic kidneys causing end-stage renal failure and respiratory insufficiency, starting peritoneal dialysis and performing a renal transplant as soon as possible. This therapeutic strategy seems appropriate for this complex situation.
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8/181. Successful intradialytic parenteral nutrition after abdominal "Catastrophes" in chronically hemodialysed patients.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic contribution of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) in four acutely ill, hypercatabolic, hemodialysed patients. All underwent major surgery, complicated by infection and malnutrition. DESIGN: A retrospective clinical study. SETTING: An in-center hemodialysis unit, at a tertiary referral hospital. patients: Patient 1: a young woman, with a good renal transplant. Developed gastric lymphoma, which required gastrectomy. After cessation of immunosuppression, "lost" her kidney and returned to hemodialysis. Received IDPN for 4 months and recovered well from severe malnourishment. Patient 2: an elderly, malnourished man, on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Developed biliary peritonitis and bacteremia. In a 3-month period, the patient had four operations. Maintained on IDPN for 4 months. Patient 3: a young and obese man, who suffered from life-threatening staphylococcal aureus peritonitis, resulting in widespread bowel adhesions. Underwent repeated aspirations of purulent ascites, laparoscopy, and explorative laparotomy. IDPN was administered for 4 months and stopped on the patient's request. Patient 4: a young man, who after cadaveric renal transplantation remained hospitalized for 6 months because of acute rejection and peritoneal and retroperitoneal abscesses. Had major surgery performed seven times. Received IDPN for 6 months, and is now well. RESULTS: All four patients benefited from 4 to 6 months of IDPN, as an integral part of intensive supportive and nutritional treatment. weight loss was halted, as patient appetite returned and oral nutrition became adequate. Estimated daily protein intake reached 1.2 g/kg, while caloric intake rose to nearly 30 kcal/kg/d (Table 3). Mean serum albumin levels increased from 25.5 g/L /- 0.9 g/L to 38.0 g/L /- 1.5 g/L. No adverse side effects were seen from IDPN. CONCLUSION: IDPN is a worthwhile part of treatments used in the catabolic, postoperative hemodialysed patient. It is safe and efficient when used over a 6-month period in trying to attenuate existing, or worsening malnutrition in these patients. It should be commenced at an early stage in these patients, after attempts at oral nutritional support have been deemed inadequate.
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9/181. Rare combined heart and kidney transplant in a pediatric patient: a case study.

    Multiple reports of successful combined heart and kidney transplants adults suggest that this may be a viable option for a small subset of patients with coexisting end-stage heart and kidney failure. A review of the literature, however, reveals that few combined heart and kidney transplants have been reported in children. This article presents the case of a 13-year-old boy who underwent unsuccessful palliative surgery for a congenital heart defect. The patient developed heart failure with subsequent acute renal failure, and ultimately required a combined heart and kidney transplant. The combined procedure was successful in this patient and he is alive and well 27 months postoperatively.
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10/181. Dilemma of oxalosis in end stage renal failure: isolated kidney allograft or hemodialysis.

    We report the case of a 10-year-old girl who received a cadaveric kidney transplant for oxalosis after a period of 12 months on hemodialysis. The donor was a 6-year-old child. cold ischemia was four hours. diuresis occurred immediately in the operating room. Mean daily diuresis was maintained at 8 liters: first by i.v. perfusion, then by nocturnal continuous nasogastric hydration. In addition to the usual immunosuppressive drugs, she received pyridoxine, sodium citrate, phosphate, hydrochlorothiazide and magnesium. Daily hemodialysis was performed from Day 1 to Day 9 and four additional sessions every other day. The postoperative course was satisfactory. Oxaluria was elevated initially at 1074 mg/24 h (normal < 50 mg/24 h). One year later, mean daily diuresis is still 8 liters, renal function is normal and oxaluria is at 296 mg/24 h. Repeated graft sonography showed no nephrocalcinosis, but mild oxalate deposits are noted on renal biopsy. Isolated renal transplantation was successful in our patient. It allowed us to stop hemodialysis and to avoid extra-renal accumulation of oxalate. Despite this success, we are convinced that long term prognosis is uncertain and liver transplantation should be realized to correct definitely the biochemical defect.
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