Cases reported "Kidney Failure, Chronic"

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1/124. Asymptomatic inferior vena cava abnormalities in three children with end-stage renal disease: risk factors and screening guidelines for pretransplant diagnosis.

    We report two children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) found to have inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis at the time of renal transplantation. The children suffered from renal diseases that included congenital hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension as part of their pathophysiology. Neither child had evidence of hypercoaguability or clinical symptoms of IVC thrombosis. Prior to transplantation, the renal replacement therapy consisted primarily of peritoneal dialysis. During their hospital courses, these children had central venous catheters placed for temporary hemodialysis, episodes of peritonitis and numerous abdominal surgeries. The medical literature to date has not identified a link between IVC thrombosis and portal hypertension, nor has an association between the patients' primary renal disease and IVC thrombosis been found. We also report the finding of asymptomatic IVC narrowing in a third patient with obstructive uropathy, colonic dysmotility and numerous abdominal surgeries. IVC narrowing was diagnosed by CT scan during his pretransplant evaluation. In this paper, we consider similarities between these three patients that may have predisposed each of them to asymptomatic IVC pathology, including large-bore central venous access as young children and/or recurrent scarring abdominal processes. A discussion regarding appropriate screening of the 'high-risk patient' for IVC pathology prior to kidney transplantation and surgical options for children with this rare complication are presented.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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2/124. calciphylaxis: a rare limb and life threatening cause of ischaemic skin necrosis and ulceration.

    calciphylaxis (uraemic gangrene syndrome) is a rare complication of chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. patients present with painful purple skin lesions which undergo necrosis and ulceration. The histology is specific. There is medial calcification with intimal hyperplasia and thrombosis of the lumen of small sized arteries in the underlying subcutaneous tissue. death frequently arises from overwhelming sepsis. Early recognition of this condition and prompt parathyroidectomy can lead to rapid relief of symptoms and ulcer healing and may be life saving.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = thrombosis
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3/124. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting using the saphenous vein in redo CABG.

    We describe a patient who underwent minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB), who had previously undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through a median sternotomy with a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and a right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) graft to the posterior descending artery. MIDCAB was less invasive and was an effective alternative procedure for the second operation. Because the patient had no LIMA or GEA available for a graft because of prior use, we used a saphenous vein graft (SVG) for bypassing from the left subclavian artery to the coronary artery by MIDCAB via a left minithoracotomy. The left subclavian artery was selected as the proximal anastomotic site because this artery was less diseased and was easier to reach. The SVG-to-coronary artery anastomosis was facilitated by firm adhesion between the epicardium and the pericardium, which reduced the motion of the epicardium itself. These results suggest that the procedure is safe and promising in selected cases of redo CABG.
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ranking = 0.09132777983396
keywords = vein
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4/124. central nervous system involvement in a child with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    We report a 20-month-old girl with postdiarrheal (shiga toxin) hemolytic uremic syndrome and severe encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in the acute phase of the disease and after 10 months. The first MR images showed widespread high signal intensity on T2-weighted and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, in deep and subcortical white matter; the splenium of the corpus callosum was also involved, as well as cerebellar hemispheres. Neurological symptoms and signs gradually disappeared within 35 days. Follow-up MR imaging showed almost complete resolution of the previous findings, and the patient recovered without central nervous system impairment. The neurological lesions were probably due to hypoxia, although several other mechanisms could be involved, such as metabolic derangements and the action of shiga toxin. In spite of the dramatic clinical manifestations, we observed a good outcome, indicating that patients with similar lesions do not necessarily have a poor prognosis.
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ranking = 0.00051700868619983
keywords = deep
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5/124. peritoneal dialysis is the therapy of choice for end-stage renal disease patients with hereditary clotting disorders.

    Chronic renal failure is an unusual complication of hereditary clotting disorders (HCDs), but this situation could change in the near future. The modality of dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with an HCD is a difficult choice. Hemodialysis (HD) may be considered, but intensive treatment with coagulation factors is required for vascular access execution and for each HD procedure. peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been infrequently proposed. However, PD requires coagulation replacement therapy only during peritoneal catheter placement. The aim of this paper is to describe our experience of three patients with ESRD and HCD, successfully treated with chronic PD in the medium term. Case 1 was a 58-year-old man with moderate hemophilia a, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection. His ESRD was secondary to glomerulonephritis. A double-cuff peritoneal catheter was surgically placed with pre-emptive factor viii administration. He began treatment with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). An inguinal hernia was repaired without complications. After eleven months of follow-up, no hemorrhage episodes have been observed and clinical outcome is optimal. Case 2 was a 46-year-old man with severe hemophilia A, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infections. He developed a diabetic nephropathy that required renal replacement therapy. A permanent silicone catheter was inserted in the left internal jugular vein, and the patient started HD treatment. Later on, PD therapy was proposed. A peritoneal catheter was implanted with simultaneous factor viii infusion. Minimal bleeding was observed at the subcutaneous tunnel over the following 48 hours. The patient started PD treatment without complications, and two months later, remaining asymptomatic, transferred to another center. Case 3 was a 41-year-old woman diagnosed with von Willebrand disease type 2A, HCV infection, and polycystic kidney disease, who presented with ESRD. An internal arteriovenous fistula was performed under coagulation factor cover. During a fistulography, and despite coagulation factor substitutive treatment, the patient showed an important hematoma. Afterwards, PD was considered. A peritoneal catheter was implanted under coagulation factor cover. The postoperative course was uncomplicated, and the patient started CAPD treatment. During follow up, she suffered two hemoperitoneum episodes that were resolved with cold dialysate. After nine months, she uneventfully continued on PD. In conclusion, PD is the therapy of choice for patients with hereditary clotting disorders and ESRD requiring dialysis. peritoneal dialysis therapy avoids many of the complications related to HD therapy.
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ranking = 0.018265555966792
keywords = vein
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6/124. Transverse cervical artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare complication of internal jugular vein cannulation.

    Internal jugular vein cannulation has become the preferred approach for temporary hemodialysis catheter placement following reports of an increased incidence of subclavian vein stenosis due to subclavian vein catheterization. Internal jugular vein catheterization is associated with a high rate of successful catheter placement. However, significant complications such as internal carotid artery (ICA) puncture, pneumothorax, vessel erosion, thrombosis, airway obstruction and infection can occur. The most common complication is ICA puncture. More recently a few cases of thyrocervical trunk pseudoaneurysm and fistula following internal jugular vein and subclavian vein catheterization attempts have been reported. patients with renal failure who are on hemodialysis may have to undergo multiple catheter placements and vascular access interventions. This, along with their comorbid conditions, increases the risk of such complications. Here we report a patient on hemodialysis who developed transverse cervical artery pseudoaneurysm following an attempted right internal jugular vein catheterization. We report this case because of its rarity, to raise awareness of such a complication and to discuss different treatment options, in particular endovascular coil occlusion. A review of relevant literature is also presented.
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ranking = 0.45092111563471
keywords = thrombosis, vein
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7/124. En bloc heterotopic auxiliary liver and bilateral renal transplant in a patient with homozygous protein c deficiency.

    An 8-year-old girl with homozygous protein c deficiency who had undergone maintenance dialysis since birth because of renal veins with thrombosis was treated with an en bloc heterotopic auxiliary liver and bilateral renal transplantation. The reconstitution of protein C activity by auxiliary liver transplantation facilitated successful renal transplantation.
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ranking = 0.26826555596679
keywords = thrombosis, vein
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8/124. nadroparin-induced calcinosis cutis in renal transplant recipients.

    Low-molecular-weight heparins are routinely used to prevent deep venous thrombosis following renal transplantation in our department. We report 2 patients who developed tender erythematous subcutaneous nodules with induration, ulceration and necrosis at the site of subcutaneous administration of nadroparin. Both patients were renal transplant recipients with impaired graft function and high serum calcium-phosphate products. The diagnosis calcinosis cutis was confirmed by technetium-99m bone scan and by histological examination of biopsies. Both patients showed spontaneous recovery several weeks after discontinuation of nadroparin. patients with chronic renal failure and hyperphosphatemia may be predisposed to develop calcinosis cutis. In addition, the role of the calcium content of nadroparin is discussed.
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ranking = 0.27076493032715
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, deep
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9/124. Case report: endovascular repair of a thoracic aortic aneurysm (saccular type) with a stent-graft.

    We describe the repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (saccular type, maximal size 85 mm) with an endovascular stent-graft in a 69-year-old man with chronic renal failure. The graft consisted of a self-expanding Z-stent covered with a woven polyester graft. An angiogram obtained intraoperatively showed complete thrombosis of the aneurysm. One month after the procedure, a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan showed thrombosis of the aneurysmal sac. A follow-up CT scan obtained 18 months after operation confirmed that the aneurysm had disappeared.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = thrombosis
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10/124. calciphylaxis in a patient with end-stage renal disease.

    calciphylaxis is a rare and life-threatening condition of progressive cutaneous necrosis secondary to small and medium-sized vessel calcification. It is seen almost exclusively in patients with end-stage renal disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. We experienced a case of 67-year-old man with calciphylaxis that manifested with characteristic skin lesions, pathologic findings, and laboratory changes. His skin lesions began as painful erythematous patches and subsequently progressed to necrotic ulcers with eschars on the distal aspect of the extremities. Pathologically, calcification was found in small and medium-sized blood vessels in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. His serum calcium was 9.5 mg/dL, phosphorus was 7.8 mg/dL, and nPTH was 99.9 pg/mL. The patient had been treated with surgical debridement and other supportive treatment. However, he eventually underwent an amputation below the right knee and died from sepsis.
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ranking = 0.00051700868619983
keywords = deep
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