Cases reported "Kidney Neoplasms"

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1/261. Metanephric adenoma-like tumors of the kidney: report of 3 malignancies with emphasis on discriminating features.

    BACKGROUND: Metanephric adenoma is a very rare benign renal tumor; only 80 well-documented cases have been reported to date. We have seen several renal tumors that were originally incorrectly diagnosed as metanephric adenoma. DESIGN: We present 3 unusual renal tumors (2 primary and 1 metastatic), each of which illustrates important pathologic features useful in discriminating metanephric adenoma from malignant mimics. RESULTS: Case 1 involved a 46-year-old man with multiple small, cortical, solid, papillary (chromophil) renal cell carcinomas in his right kidney; the patient developed multiple, histologically identical, solid, papillary (chromophil) carcinomas in the opposite kidney 17 months later. Case 2 involved a 32-year-old woman with a 14-cm right renal tumor who developed soft tissue and bone metastases over a 17-year period. Case 3 involved a 52-year-old woman who presented with a 1.8-cm corticomedullary renal nodule, which eventually proved to represent a metastasis from a poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid. All 3 tumors superficially resembled metanephric adenoma and consisted of primitive, dark-staining cells arranged in tubules or sheets. Each tumor, however, also had features inconsistent with the diagnosis of metanephric adenoma, including multifocal lesions with a variable nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and diffuse cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen immunopositivity in case 1, a 14-cm-diameter tumor with occasional mitoses in case 2, and a distinct fibrous capsule with capsular and vascular invasion in case 3. In addition, all 3 tumors lacked the cytologic features of bland overlapping nuclei with imperceptible cytoplasm consistently seen in metanephric adenoma. CONCLUSION: Adherence to strict histopathologic criteria will discourage misdiagnosis of a malignant or potentially malignant renal neoplasm as the rare and always benign metanephric adenoma.
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keywords = bone
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2/261. Collecting duct meningeal carcinomatosis.

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is an aggressive primary renal neoplasm that represents a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Histochemical (eg, mucicarmine) and immunohistochemical (eg, ulex europaeus) studies, taken in concert with the gross and histologic findings, allow differentiation of CDC from the conventional varieties of renal cell carcinoma in most cases. Collecting duct carcinoma generally pursues a more aggressive course than conventional renal cell carcinoma. Metastases to regional lymph nodes, bone, adrenal glands, lung, and skin have been reported in CDC. We describe the case of a 26-year-old man who presented with a clinical and radiologic impression of multifocal meningioma. Biopsies of the meninges and extracranial soft tissues revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma; subsequent studies suggested metastatic CDC. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was performed on a subsequently identified renal mass, which showed features consistent with CDC. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of meningeal carcinomatosis due to CDC. The diagnostic features of this tumor are discussed.
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3/261. syndrome of microcephaly, Dandy-Walker malformation, and wilms tumor caused by mosaic variegated aneuploidy with premature centromere division (PCD): report of a new case and review of the literature.

    We report a male infant with multiple congenital anomalies and mosaic variegated aneuploidy; a rare cytogenetic abnormality characterized by mosaicism for several different aneuploidies involving many different chromosomes. He had prenatal-onset growth retardation, microcephaly, dysmorphic face, seizures, hypotonia, feeding difficulty, and developmental delay. In addition, he developed bilateral Wilms tumors. Neuroradiological examination revealed Dandy-Walker malformation and hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere and pons. cytogenetic analysis revealed various multiple numerical aneuploidies in blood lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and bone marrow cells, together with premature centromere division (PCD). Peripheral blood chromosome analysis from his parents also showed PCD, but no aneuploid cells. The clinical phenotype and multiple aneuploidies of the patient may be a consequence of the homozygous PCD trait inherited from his parents. Comparison with previously reported cases of multiple aneuploidy suggests that mosaic variegated aneuploidy with PCD may be a clinically recognizable syndrome with major phenotypes being mental retardation, microcephaly, structural brain anomalies (including Dandy-Walker malformation), and possible cancer predisposition.
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4/261. Renal and adrenal gland localization of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as a kidney tumor.

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) characterized by prominent monocytosis and an increase in bone marrow monocyte precursors in addition to dyshaematopoietic features (1). Extrahaematological manifestations including cutaneous, neurologic, and rheumatic symptoms have been recorded in association with CMML. Here, we report the first observation of renal, adrenal and perirenal involvement in CMML which presented as a kidney tumor.
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5/261. Renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to the thyroid gland.

    Renal cell carcinoma represents 3% of all adult malignancies. Metastases occur most frequently in the bone and lung. Four cases of renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to the thyroid gland are described here. A literature review is presented and guidelines for the management of this rare condition are suggested.
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6/261. Sclerotic bone metastases from sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma.

    We present a case of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with multiple sclerotic skeletal metastatic lesions. Renal cell carcinoma is frequently metastatic at presentation, with a high incidence of skeletal involvement, classically described as osteolytic. However, sclerotic or osteoblastic metastatic skeletal lesions from renal cell carcinoma are rare, with only two previous reports identified in the literature, neither of which involved the sarcomatoid variant of renal cell carcinoma. In our case the sclerotic metastases were characterized by bone scan, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histologic analysis.
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keywords = bone
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7/261. Renal cell carcinoma with massive osseous metaplasia and bone marrow elements.

    Focal calcifications are frequently seen in renal masses and may be present in renal cell carcinomas. Metaplastic bone formation, on the other hand, is a rare event. We report a unique case of a large calcified renal cell carcinoma with massive osseous metaplasia and bone marrow elements. The clinical and pathologic differential diagnosis for this tumor is discussed along with a review of the literature on this unusual phenomenon.
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keywords = bone
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8/261. Clear cell sarcoma of kidney in an adolescent and in young adults: a report of four cases with ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and dna flow cytometric analysis.

    Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is a distinct, highly malignant pediatric neoplasm. Its occurrence in adults is extremely rare and the subject of isolated case reports. We present a series of four cases (three males and one female) identified in an adolescent and in young adults (16, 18, 20, and 25 years) with flank mass (three cases), hematuria (two cases), flank pain (two cases), and hypertension (one case). Three patients had stage III disease and one had stage I disease (National Wilms' Tumor Study staging system). All tumors had predominantly or exclusively the classic histology of a monotonous proliferation of uniform small round cells with evenly distributed fine chromatin, although focal microcyst formation (two cases) and spindled architecture (one case) (variant patterns) were also noted. Therapy in all cases consisted of surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiation. Follow-up data (29-202 months) showed distant metastases in all four cases, including the lung (four cases), bone (two cases), and the liver (two cases). Three patients died of disease at 29, 59, and 63 months (mean, 50.3 months), and one patient is alive with no evidence of disease at 202 months. Ultrastructural features included scattered primitive junctions, short and irregular cytoplasmic extensions, and scant to a moderate amount of mitochondria. Immunohistochemical study (three cases) showed immunoreactivity with vimentin (two cases) and no reaction with cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, or desmin. Flow cytometric analysis showed diploid dna content in three primary tumors and tetraploidy in one metastatic tumor. The proliferative activity (S-phase fraction) was low to intermediate (mean, 9.8%). Our data suggest that clear cell sarcoma of the kidney in the young adult age group resembles its pediatric counterpart in ultrastructural and immunohistochemical characteristics, proclivity for skeletal and visceral metastasis, dna diploid status with relatively low S-phase, and aggressive clinical course. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney in adult patients, although rare, must be differentiated from sarcomatoid carcinoma, sarcomas, and round cell tumors because of its unique characteristics in comparison to other renal neoplasms.
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9/261. Positron emission tomography detection of osseous metastases of renal cell carcinoma not identified on bone scan.

    The clinical utility of positron emission tomography (PET) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not been determined. We describe a case in which metastatic RCC undetected by traditional staging methods was accurately staged by PET. A 77-year-old man presented with a 20-lb weight loss and bilateral renal masses. Plain radiographs, bone scintigraphy, and alkaline phosphatase were normal. PET imaging confirmed the right renal mass and revealed several metastatic bone lesions, confirmed by biopsy. The patient died 7 months after diagnosis. This case illustrates the potential superiority of PET in evaluating skeletal metastases of RCC.
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ranking = 6
keywords = bone
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10/261. A phase Ib/II trial of granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2 for renal cell carcinoma patients with pulmonary metastases: a case of fatal central nervous system thrombosis.

    BACKGROUND: interleukin-2 (IL-2) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are cytokines with nonoverlapping pleiotropic effects. In a prior Phase Ib study, this combination of agents exhibited antitumor effects in the lungs of four of eight patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases. We conducted this Phase Ib/II trial to determine the response rate of renal cell carcinoma patients with pulmonary metastases treated with continuous infusion IL-2 plus GM-CSF. methods: patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases were treated with 1.5, 2.25, or 4.5 x 10(6) IU/m(2)/day 96-hour continuous infusion IL-2 on Days 1-4, 8-11, and 15-18, and 1.25, 2.25, or 2.5 microg/kg/day GM-CSF on Days 8-19. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were treated per protocol, 14 of whom could be evaluated for disease progression. None of these 14 patients had >50% shrinkage of either total tumor burden or pulmonary metastasis. One patient developed Grade 5 neurotoxicity. autopsy revealed acute multifocal cerebral venous thrombosis as well as acute subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of IL-2 and GM-CSF may be associated with marked morbidity and, as in one case in this study, mortality. No significant antitumor activity was appreciated. Thus, the combination of IL-2 and GM-CSF, when administered at this dose and according to this schedule, does not appear to be active in renal cell carcinoma and is associated with significant toxicities. Further studies using this combination of agents should only be undertaken with extreme caution and particular attention to neurotoxicity.
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