Cases reported "Klatskin's Tumor"

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1/9. carcinoid tumor of the hepatic duct presenting as a Klatskin tumor in an adolescent and review of world literature.

    This is a case presentation of a 14-year-old boy with the radiological diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma occluding the hepatic duct bifurcation. His only symptom at presentation was jaundice and further workup confirmed a mass at the porta hepatis. Surgical treatment resulted in a resection of the hepatic bifurcation tumor with a final pathological diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor of the hepatic duct bifurcation. To our knowledge, this is only the second case presented of a resected carcinoid tumor in adolescence. In this communique we present the above case and review of the world literature of biliary neuroendocrine tumors.
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2/9. granular cell tumor at the hepatic duct confluence mimicking Klatskin tumor. A report of two cases and a review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Granular cell tumors are rare tumors most often located in the oral cavity, skin or subcutaneous tissue. The occurrence of this tumor in the biliary tree is extremely rare. methods: Two patients are described presenting with biliary obstruction due to a tumor at the hepatic duct confluence. One patient is a 38-year-old white male with concomitant cutaneous granular cell tumors, and the other a 50-year-old white female. RESULTS: Hilar excision was performed in both patients. Histopathology of the tumors revealed a proliferation of cells with granular cytoplasm, diagnosed as granular cell tumor. CONCLUSION: At preoperative examination, hilar granular cell tumors are difficult to differentiate from cholangiocarcinoma, sclerosing cholangitis or more common benign biliary tumors. Treatment consists of surgical excision after which prognosis is favorable.
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3/9. Foreign body reaction to a metal clip causing a benign bile duct stricture 16 years after open cholecystectomy: report of a case.

    We present herein a case where a benign bile duct stricture developed 16 years after an open cholecystectomy and without any prior symptoms. The patient was thought to have a Klatskin tumor both pre- and intraoperatively and was treated with a resection of the mass and bile duct confluence, while hepaticojejunostomies were also performed to both ducts separately. A pathologic examination of the specimen revealed extensive fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and a nonnecrotizing granulomata. Any hilar mass presenting after upper abdominal surgery should therefore be considered to be potentially a benign bile duct stricture, even with a long symptom-free interval.
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4/9. Hepatic duct stones masquerading as Klatskin tumour.

    We report woman who presented with painless progressive jaundice following cholecystectomy. Radiological investigations indicated proximal bile duct obstruction suggestive of hilar malignancy. Exploratory laparatomy revealed bilateral hepatic duct stone causing obstruction.
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5/9. Curative reoperation for recurrent cancer of the extrahepatic bile duct: report of two cases.

    Local recurrence, following a resection for cancer of the extrahepatic bile duct, is usually incurable with second curative surgery being almost impossible. To determine the feasibility and significance of second curative surgery, our experiences are presented in this study. The medical records and clinical outcomes of two patients that underwent a re-resection for recurrent cancer of the extrahepatic bile duct were retrospectively reviewed. A 50-year-old female patient that had a recurrent disease at the intrahepatic and intrapancreatic bile duct, 66 months after a segmental resection of the bile duct for common bile duct (CBD) cancer, underwent a hepatopancreatoduodenectomy. A 29-year-old female patient had a recurrent tumor mass in the distal CBD, 28 months after a right hemihepatectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejenostomy for a type IIIa Klatskin tumor, and underwent a segmental resection of the bile duct. The gross type of the above two cases was a papillary tumor. There was no operative mortality or morbidity. All patients are still alive after 46 and 9 months, respectively, without recurrence after the reoperation. It is concluded that a surgical re-resection is possible in selected patients with recurrent bile duct cancer, mostly of the papillary type. A primary operation for bile duct cancer should be performed with a wide surgical margin, and secondary curative surgery should be considered whenever possible in cases of recurrence.
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6/9. Balloon dilatation through the subcutaneously placed afferent limb of a hepaticojejunostomy in patients with resected Klatskin tumors.

    It is generally conceded that palliation for proximal bile duct tumors (Klatskin) is exceptional if obstruction and the resultant infections can be prevented. Our experience with balloon dilatations thru the subcutaneously placed afferent limb of a choledocho or hepatico jejunostomy in patients with benign strictures suggests that this approach will be effective in patients with malignancies and thus provide long-term control of the obstruction without the need for external tubes. This is a report on one patient who, following a resected Klatskin tumor with positive margins, was treated with transhepatic internal external stents and was converted to a subcutaneous limb following numerous bouts of cholangitis. A schedule for repeat dilatations thru the jejunal limb was established. The patient has remained afebrile with a normal bilirubin and a moderately elevated alkaline phosphatase. Recurrent tumors or postirradiation strictures in patients with resected Klatskin tumors can be effectively controlled by repeated balloon dilatation without the need for external stents.
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7/9. A new method to obtain a tissue diagnosis of proximal bile duct tumors.

    Klatskin tumors often pose a challenge for diagnosis and treatment. Most of these neoplasms are diagnosed clinically because of the difficulty in obtaining tissue that will provide histologic proof of the disease. When a non-operative course is sought, exhaustive attempts should be made to obtain a tissue diagnosis because of the potential for a false-positive clinical diagnosis. We describe a new way to obtain tissue for diagnosis by placing a laparoscopic choledochoscope through a percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram track, thus allowing the tumor to be directly visualized and biopsied.
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8/9. Favourable anatomical variation for the resection of a Klatskin tumour.

    The liver and the biliary tract are rich in anatomical variations, knowledge of which is important for the surgeon. A case of an anatomical variation is reported, which allowed easy and oncologically correct resection of a Klatskin tumour. The variation consisted of abnormally long right and left extrahepatic ducts and an abnormal distal bifurcation, with a cystic duct joining the distal end of the right duct. A favourable modification of surgical strategy could be obtained by an oncologically correct resection of a Klatskin tumour avoiding a liver resection and also allowing easy reconstruction. Complete biliary exposure was necessary to reveal the rare, pre-operatively unrecognized, but favourable situation. In the absence of clear contraindications extended biliary dissection is to be recommended to avoid errors in the evaluation of the resectability of hilar biliary cancers.
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9/9. Primary extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the extrahepatic bile duct mimmicking Klatskin tumor.

    This report describes one case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the extrahepatic biliary tree. The main symptom was obstructive jaundice. cholangiography demonstrated stricture of the bile duct which resembled the appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The surgical approach allowed complete ressection. The histopathological analyses showed a centrocitic-centroblastic follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma. She underwent chemotherapy, developed severe bone marrow hypoplasia, but 48 months after surgery, the patient is doing well.
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