Cases reported "Klinefelter Syndrome"

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1/12. Estimates of sperm sex chromosome disomy and diploidy rates in a 47,XXY/46,XY mosaic Klinefelter patient.

    A 47,XXY/46,XY male was investigated for the incidence of aneuploidy in sperm sex chromosomes using a three-colour X/Y/18 fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) protocol. A total of 1701 sperm nuclei were analysed. The ratio of X-bearing to Y-bearing sperm did not differ from the expected 1:1 ratio although there were more 23,Y sperm than 23,X sperm (844 vs 795). There was a significantly increased proportion of disomy XY and XX sperm compared with normal controls (0.41% vs 0.10%, P < 0.001 and 0.29% vs 0.04%, P < 0.01). However, the incidence of YY sperm was similar to the controls (0.06% vs 0.02%). The diploidy rate was also significantly increased (1.7% vs 0.13%, P < 0.0001), as was disomy 18 (0.71% vs 0.09%) and 25,XXY (0.47% vs 0%). The results support the hypothesis that some 47,XXY cells are able to undergo meiosis and produce mature spermatozoa. patients with mosaic klinefelter syndrome with severe oligozoospermia have significantly elevated incidences of disomy XY and XX sperm and may be at a slightly increased risk of producing 47,XXX and 47,XXY offspring. Additionally, they may be at risk of producing offspring with autosomal trisomies. Hence, patients with Klinefelter mosaicism scheduled for intracytoplasmic sperm injection intervention should first undergo FISH analysis of their sperm to determine their risk.
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2/12. A variant klinefelter syndrome patient with an XXY/XX/XY karyotype studied by GTG-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    klinefelter syndrome is the first human sex chromosomal abnormality to be reported. The majority of klinefelter syndrome patients have the XXY karyotype. Approximately 15% of Klinefelter patients, however, are mosaics with variable phenotypes. Among the variant Klinefelter genotypes are such karyotypes as XY/XXY and XX/XXY. The variation in phenotypes most likely depends on the number of abnormal cells and their location in body tissues. In this paper we report the case of a 42-year-old patient with klinefelter syndrome and a rare variant mosaic XXY/XX karyotype initially identified by GTG-banding. This was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a dual-color X/Y probe. The patient presented with erectile dysfunction and few other physical findings. Thus, this case illustrates a rare variant of klinefelter syndrome with a relatively mild phenotype. It also illustrates the utility of FISH as an adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in assessing the chromosome copy number in each cell line of a mosaic. In our case, FISH also detected the presence of a small population of cells with the XY karyotype not previously detected in the initial 30-cell GTG-banding analysis. Thus, through a combination of GTG-banding and FISH, the patient was determined to be an XXY/XX/XY mosaic. Given that most individuals with klinefelter syndrome are infertile, and that these individuals may wish to reproduce with the aid of modern reproductive technology, such as testicular fine needle aspiration and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, it is important that accurate estimation of the frequency of abnormal cells be obtained for accurate risk estimation and genetic counseling, as recent studies in patients with mosaic klinefelter syndrome revealed that germ cells with sex chromosomal abnormalities were nevertheless capable of completing meiosis.
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3/12. fluorescence in-situ hybridization of sex chromosomes in spermatozoa and spare preimplantation embryos of a Klinefelter 46,XY/47,XXY male.

    It has been suggested recently that 47,XXY germ cells are able to progress through meiosis to produce hyperhaploid spermatozoa. We report on a 46,XY/47,XXY Klinefelter patient whose spermatozoa were recovered from the ejaculate and used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the patient's spermatozoa and of spare preimplantation embryos with dna probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 18 revealed sex chromosome hyperploidy in 3.9% of the sperm nuclei analysed (2.23% XY18, 1.12% XX18, 0.56% YY18), while only three out of 10 spare embryos analysed were normal for chromosomes tested. The abnormalities included two diploid mosaic embryos with the majority of the blastomeres normal for the chromosomes tested, and five embryos with mostly abnormal blastomeres and chaotic chromosome X, Y and 18 patterns. None of the embryos analysed showed a XXY1818 or XXX1818 chromosome complement. The frequency of sex chromosome hyperploidy in the spermatozoa of the mosaic Klinefelter patient was higher than the mean reported for karyotypically normal males, supporting the hypothesis that 47,XXY germ cells are able to complete meiosis and produce aneuploid spermatozoa. However, most of the spermatozoa analysed were normal for sex chromosomes, and ICSI of the patient's spermatozoa did not result in a spare embryo with a uniform 47,XXY or 47,XXX chromosome complement. Instead, fertilization produced a high percentage of mosaic embryos with chaotic chromosome arrangements.
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4/12. Meiotic behaviour of the sex chromosomes in three patients with sex chromosome anomalies (47,XXY, mosaic 46,XY/47,XXY and 47,XYY) assessed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization.

    Meiotic studies using multicolour fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosome painting were carried out in three patients with sex chromosome anomalies (47,XXY; 46,XY/47,XXY and 47,XYY). In the two patients with klinefelter syndrome, although variable percentages of XXY cells (88.5 and 28.3%) could be found in the pre-meiotic stages, none of the abnormal cells entered meiosis, and all pachytenes were XY. However, the abnormal testicular environment of these patients probably resulted in meiotic I non-disjunction, and a certain proportion of post-reductional cells were XY (18.3 and 1.7%). The fact that none of the spermatozoa were XY also suggests the existence of an arrest at the secondary spermatocyte or the spermatid level. In the XYY patient, most (95.9%) premeiotic cells were XYY. The percentage of XYY pachytenes was 57.9%. The sex chromosomes were either in close proximity (XYY) or the X chromosome was separated from the two Ys (X YY). A high proportion (42.1%) of post-reductional germ cells were XY. However, only 0.11% of spermatozoa were disomic for the sex chromosomes. In this case, the data suggest the existence of an arrest of the abnormal cells at the primary and the secondary spermatocyte or the spermatid level, giving rise to the continuous elimination of abnormal cells in the germ-cell line along spermatogenesis. The fact that the proportion of diploid spermatozoa was only increased in one of the three cases (XXY) is also suggestive of an arrest of the abnormal cell lines in these patients. The two apparently non-mosaic patients were, in fact, germ-cell mosaics. This suggests that the cytogenetic criteria used to define non-mosaic patients may be inadequate; thus, the risk of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in apparently non-mosaics may be lower than expected.
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5/12. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a non-mosaic isodicentric y chromosome in a patient with klinefelter syndrome.

    We report on an adult male with Klinefelter phenotype and an isodicentric y chromosome (47,XX, idic(Y)(q12)), a combination which has to the best of our knowledge not been reported before. The patient was hospitalized in forensic psychiatry because of repeated delinquency, aggressive, aberrant and inappropriate behavior, and borderline intelligence. Molecular cytogenetic studies (FISH) showed that the SRY gene was present on both ends of the idicY, while there was only one signal for the Yq subtelomere probe. Molecular investigations by multiplex PCR, using STS markers covering the short and long arm of the y chromosome did not indicate a deletion of Y chromosomal material. Molecular investigations of STR markers located on Xp22.3 and Xq28 indicated paternal origin of the additional X chromosome and an error in paternal meiosis I. Results of FISH analysis and molecular investigations are compatible with a phenotype as described for individuals with a 48,XXYY karyotype and support the findings that isodicentric Y chromosomes are frequently accompanied by other sex chromosomal abnormalities.
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6/12. The etiology of XX sex reversal.

    The primary testis-determining function is exerted by a gene in the sex-determining region of the human y chromosome. This gene is termed the sex-determining factor or TDF. A zinc finger gene, ZFY, residing in this region has been cloned and characterized. It is a candidate for TDF. A challenge to future molecular research is to clarify the function of a zinc finger gene on the X chromosome, ZFX, that shows high structural similarity to ZFY. Furthermore, the existence of other genes involved in sex determination is likely but so far unproven. Sex reversal leading to testes in apparently XX individuals (XX males) is most often due to the presence of TDF on the paternally derived X chromosome. The abnormality arises during meiosis in the father when an abnormal exchange leads to the transfer onto the X of the entire pseudoautosomal region plus a portion of the y chromosome-specific region including TDF from the Y. An XX male resulting from such an exchange is described. 10-20% of XX males do not have Y DNA. Two major mechanisms to explain such Y(-) XX males are discussed. First, several published pedigrees show clear-cut dominant autosomal or X chromosomal inheritance of XX maleness. These patients are always Y(-) and usually have sexual ambiguity. This indicates the existence of other genes, obviously 'downstream' from TDF, that when mutated can trigger testis determination. Nothing concrete is presently known about these putative genes, but their phenotypic effect is slightly different from that of TDF. Second, mosaicism with a prevalent XX lineage and a hidden or scarce lineage containing a y chromosome can explain some apparently Y(-) XX males. Two XX/XXY mosaic patients are described in detail. In one, only a combination of DNA hybridization and cytogenetic studies led to the discovery of the XXY cell line. In conclusion, XX sex reversal in man is caused by at least 3 mechanisms, viz. abnormal Y-X interchange, genes other than TDF, and mosaicism.
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7/12. Maternal meiosis II nondisjunction in a case of 47,XXY testicular feminization.

    An 11-year-old patient with incomplete testicular feminization and a 47,XXY karyotype is described. The patient had female external genitalia, clitoromegaly, and some features of Klinefelter's syndrome, including speech delay and delayed intellectual development. DNA analysis using X chromosomal DNA sequences suggest that the supernumerary X chromosome in the patient resulted from maternal nondisjunction during meiosis II. The M II error thereby provides the basis for homozygosity of a mutation in the androgen receptor locus.
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8/12. Paternal non-disjunction in a 46,XY/47,XXY individual with a fragile 17p12 in the mother.

    In a family where the mother carried a fragile site at 17p12, RFLP-analysis with the X-specific probe L1.28 showed that the 46,XY/47,XXY mosaicism detected in her Klinefelter son was due to a non-disjunctional event in paternal meiosis I, followed by a secondary loss of an X-chromosome by a mitotic non-disjunction. Thus, an association between the primary meiotic non-disjunction and the presence of the fragile site could be excluded.
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9/12. Segregation of sex chromosomes into sperm nuclei in a man with 47,XXY Klinefelter's karyotype: a FISH analysis.

    Meiotic segregation of the sex chromosomes was analysed in sperm nuclei from a man with Klinefelter's karyotype by three-colour FISH. The X- and Y-specific DNA probes were co-hybridized with a probe specific for chromosome 1, thus allowing diploid and hyperhaploid spermatozoa to be distinguished. A total of 2206 sperm nuclei was examined; 958 cells contained an X chromosome, 1077 a y chromosome. The ratio of X:Y bearing sperm differed significantly from the expected 1:1 ratio (chi2 = 6.96; 0.001 < P < 0.01). Sex-chromosomal hyperhaploidy was detected in 2.67% of the cells (1.22% XX, 1.36% XY, 0.09% YY) and a diploid constitution in 0.23%. Although the frequency of 24,YY sperm was similar to that detected in fertile males, the frequencies of 24,XX, 24,XY and diploid cells were significantly increased. A sex-chromosomal signal was missing in 4.26% of the spermatozoa. This percentage appeared to be too high to be attributed merely to nullisomy for the sex chromosomes and was considered, at least partially, to be the result of superposition of sex-chromosomal hybridization signals by autosomal signals in a number of sperm nuclei. The results contribute additional evidence that 47,XXY cells are able to complete meiosis and produce mature sperm nuclei.
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10/12. High incidence of sperm sex chromosomes aneuploidies in two patients with Klinefelter's syndrome.

    In this study we have investigated the arrangement of sex chromosomes in sperm from two severe oligozoospermic patients, apparently affected by the classic form of Klinefelter's syndrome (KS). Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization has been used to recognize chromosomes X, Y, and 8 in sperm from patients and 10 fertile men with normal 46,XY karyotype. In patients affected by KS, we detected important numerical sex chromosome abnormalities (approximately 20%). In all normal fertile men, X- and Y-bearing spermatozoa were present in a 1:1 ratio. On the contrary, in our patients the frequency of 23,Y-bearing sperm was strongly reduced compared with that of both 23,Y sperm in the controls and 23,X sperm in the same subject affected by KS, resulting in a 23,X-/23,Y-bearing sperm ratio of 2:1. Moreover, the frequency of 24,XY disomic sperm was significantly higher in the absence of the 22,0 hypoaploidy expected from a common origin from a nondysjunction during the first meiosis in a normal 46,XY cell. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate a peculiar distribution of sex chromosomes in sperm from two patients with KS, in agreement with the hypothesis that 47,XXY germ cells are able to complete the meiotic process by producing mature spermatozoa.
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