Cases reported "Kwashiorkor"

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1/23. Malnutrition in infants receiving cult diets: a form of child abuse.

    Severe nutritional disorders, including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and rickets, were seen in four children and were due to parental food faddism, which should perhaps be regarded as a form of child abuse. All disorders were corrected with more normal diets and vitamin supplements. In view of the potentially serious consequences of restricted diets being fed to children, families at risk should be identified and acceptable nutritional advice given. When children are found to be suffering from undernutrition due to parental food faddism a court order will normally be a necessary step in providing adequate treatment and supervision.
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2/23. kwashiorkor in patients with AIDS.

    kwashiorkor, a form of severe protein-energy malnutrition that entails loss of lean body weight, occurs endemically among children in many parts of the world but also has been documented in adults. We report a case of kwashiorkor in an hiv-positive adult male. Cutaneous findings are striking, and skin, hair, and nails are affected. Although kwashiorkor occurs in patients with hiv-AIDS, the skin manifestations have not been emphasized in the dermatologic literature. Indeed, dermatologists may play a vital role in diagnosing this treatable condition.
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3/23. Severe nutritional deficiencies in toddlers resulting from health food milk alternatives.

    It is widely appreciated that health food beverages are not appropriate for infants. Because of continued growth, children beyond infancy remain susceptible to nutritional disorders. We report on 2 cases of severe nutritional deficiency caused by consumption of health food beverages. In both cases, the parents were well-educated, appeared conscientious, and their children received regular medical care. Diagnoses were delayed by a low index of suspicion. In addition, nutritional deficiencies are uncommon in the united states and as a result, US physicians may be unfamiliar with their clinical features. Case 1, a 22-month-old male child, was admitted with severe kwashiorkor. He was breastfed until 13 months of age. Because of a history of chronic eczema and perceived milk intolerance, he was started on a rice beverage after weaning. On average, he consumed 1.5 L of this drink daily. Intake of solid foods was very poor. As this rice beverage, which was fallaciously referred to as rice milk, is extremely low in protein content, the resulting daily protein intake of 0.3 g/kg/day was only 25% of the recommended dietary allowance. In contrast, caloric intake was 72% of the recommended energy intake, so the dietary protein to energy ratio was very low. A photograph of the patient after admission illustrates the typical features of kwashiorkor: generalized edema, hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin lesions, abdominal distention, irritability, and thin, sparse hair. Because of fluid retention, the weight was on the 10th percentile and he had a rotund sugar baby appearance. Laboratory evaluation was remarkable for a serum albumin of 1.0 g/dL (10 g/L), urea nitrogen <0.5 mg/dL (<0.2 mmol/L), and a normocytic anemia with marked anisocytosis. Evaluation for other causes of hypoalbuminemia was negative. Therapy for kwashiorkor was instituted, including gradual refeeding, initially via a nasogastric tube because of severe anorexia. Supplements of potassium, phosphorus, multivitamins, zinc, and folic acid were provided. The patient responded dramatically to refeeding with a rising serum albumin and total resolution of the edema within 3 weeks. At follow-up 1 year later he continued to do well on a regular diet supplemented with a milk-based pediatric nutritional supplement. The mortality of kwashiorkor remains high, because of complications such as infection (kwashiorkor impairs cellular immune defenses) and electrolyte imbalances with ongoing diarrhea. Children in industrialized countries have developed kwashiorkor resulting from the use of a nondairy creamer as a milk alternative, but we were unable to find previous reports of kwashiorkor caused by a health food milk alternative. We suspect that cases have been overlooked. Case 2, a 17-month-old black male, was diagnosed with rickets. He was full-term at birth and was breastfed until 10 months of age, when he was weaned to a soy health food beverage, which was not fortified with vitamin d or calcium. Intake of solid foods was good, but included no animal products. Total daily caloric intake was 114% of the recommended dietary allowance. Dietary vitamin d intake was essentially absent because of the lack of vitamin d-fortified milk. The patient lived in a sunny, warm climate, but because of parental career demands, he had limited sun exposure. His dark complexion further reduced ultraviolet light-induced endogenous skin synthesis of vitamin d. The patient grew and developed normally until after his 9-month check-up, when he had an almost complete growth arrest of both height and weight. The parents reported regression in gross motor milestones. On admission the patient was unable to crawl or roll over. He could maintain a sitting position precariously when so placed. Conversely, his language, fine motor-adaptive, and personal-social skills were well-preserved. Generalized hypotonia, weakness, and decreased muscle bulk were present. Clinical features of rickets present on examination included: frontal bossing, an obvious rachitic rosary (photographed), genu varus, flaring of the wrists, and lumbar kyphoscoliosis. The serum alkaline phosphatase was markedly elevated (1879 U/L), phosphorus was low (1.7 mg/dL), and calcium was low normal (8.9 mg/dL). The 25-hydroxy-vitamin d level was low (7.7 pg/mL) and the parathyroid hormone level was markedly elevated (114 pg/mL). The published radiographs are diagnostic of advanced rickets, showing diffuse osteopenia, frayed metaphyses, widened epiphyseal plates, and a pathologic fracture of the ulna. The patient was treated with ergocalciferol and calcium supplements. The published growth chart demonstrates the dramatic response to therapy. Gross motor milestones were fully regained within 6 months. The prominent neuromuscular manifestations shown by this patient serve as a reminder that rickets should be considered in the differential diagnosis of motor delay. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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4/23. kwashiorkor in the united states: fad diets, perceived and true milk allergy, and nutritional ignorance.

    BACKGROUND: kwashiorkor is the edematous form of protein-energy malnutrition. It is associated with extreme poverty in developing countries and with chronic malabsorptive conditions such as cystic fibrosis in developed countries. Rare cases of kwashiorkor in affluent countries unrelated to chronic illness have been reported. We present 12 cases of kwashiorkor unrelated to chronic illness seen over 9 years by pediatric dermatologists throughout the united states, and discuss common causative themes in this easily preventable condition. OBSERVATIONS: Twelve children were diagnosed as having kwashiorkor in 7 tertiary referral centers throughout the united states. The diagnoses were based on the characteristic rash and the overall clinical presentation. The rash consisted of an erosive, crusting, desquamating dermatitis sometimes with classic "pasted-on" scale-the so-called flaky paint sign. Most cases were due to nutritional ignorance, perceived milk intolerance, or food faddism. Half of the cases were the result of a deliberate deviation to a protein-deficient diet because of a perceived intolerance of formula or milk. Financial and social stresses were a factor in only 2 cases, and in both cases social chaos was more of a factor than an absolute lack of financial resources. Misleading dietary histories and the presence of edema masking growth failure obscured the clinical picture in some cases. CONCLUSIONS: physicians should consider the diagnosis of kwashiorkor in children with perceived milk allergies resulting in frequent dietary manipulations, in children following fad or unorthodox diets, or in children living in homes with significant social chaos. The presence of edema and "flaky paint" dermatitis should prompt a careful dietary investigation.
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5/23. Can the growth of a neuroblastoma be influenced by a child's nutritional state? Observations in a patient treated for kwashiorkor and later given a restricted diet.

    A 17-month-old Thai female with neuroblastoma presented with an abdominal mass and the classical findings of kwashiorkor. Concomitant with effective repair of the child's protein deficit, the mass enlarged dramatically and metastases were noted. This is the first known report of such an occurrence.
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6/23. Tropical calcific pancreatitis presenting as kwashiorkor.

    Tropical clacific pancreatitis can be accompanied by varying degrees of malnutrition but full-blown kwashiorkor is an extremely rare presentation. We report the case of a 10-year-old male who presented with clinical features of severe kwashiorkor. He had extensive pancreatic clacification and exocrine pancreatic deficiency. The child was treated with pancreatic enzyme replacement, and enteral nutrition supplemented with vitamins and micronutrients. Following therapy, he started gaining weight, the skin changes partly disappeared and his hair resumed its normal black colour.
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7/23. Electron microscopy of herpes simplex hepatitis with hepatocyte pulmonary embolization in kwashiorkor.

    We report a case of herpes simplex hepatitis in a child with edematous malnutrition. Electron microscopy showed virus in parenchymal cells, with pulmonary embolization of necrotic, infected hepatic cell fragments. Systemic dissemination of herpes simplex may be related both to the profound immunoincompetence associated with kwashiorkor and to a reduction in the circulating and fixed polyanions that normally inhibit viral attachment to cells.
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8/23. Weanling diarrhea: a case report.

    This case report describes a 14-month-old Guatemalan boy suffering from diarrhea and malnutrition. He had been healthy and experienced normal growth until weaning, which began at six months of age. Introduction of semisolid foods at this time was accompanied by bouts of diarrhea and a reduced growth rate. After admission to hospital at 14 months of age, he was found to have protein-energy malnutrition of the edematous type (kwashiorkor) and to be infected with giardia lamblia. Therapy with metronidazole and a high-protein diet resulted in satisfactory weight gain and cessation of the diarrhea.
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9/23. A kwashiorkor-like syndrome in a Caucasian with enteropathy.

    A Caucasian child with congenital heart disease (CHD) presented at the age of 19 months with a kwashiorkor-like syndrome. Jejunal biopsy showed sub-total villus atrophy. The clinical picture of repeated infection causing growth faltering followed by oedema, hair and skin changes, resembled the response to infection of many nutritionally stressed children in the tropical world. The exact aetiology of kwashiorkor and the diagnostic specificity of its clinical features remain in doubt, as does precise definition. This case highlights the problems of diagnosing a condition which is essentially the end point of a combination of nutritional and environmental stresses.
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10/23. Skin changes in short-bowel syndrome. kwashiorkor-like syndrome.

    An infant with short-bowel syndrome developed flexural desquamation and "enamel paint" skin in pressure-bearing areas. Hyperalimentation with amino acid and lipid solution was unsuccessful in correcting the malnutrition and skin changes.
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